NACCHO Aboriginal Health Alert : Download the 50 Page @HealthInfoNet Summary of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health status 2017

 ” One area of positive change is in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander self-governance.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Members of the House of Representatives, Senators and other senior political leaders work to improve the health and wellbeing of their people

These developments have come after years of leadership from Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations (ACCHOs).” 

Extract from Summary of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health status 2017

Download Summary+of+Aboriginal+and+Torres+Strait+Islander+health+status+2017

The new Summary of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health status 2017 makes keeping up to date easier. The Summary is a plain language version of the more comprehensive Overview of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health status 2017.

Our annual Summary is one of our most popular publications.

This year as part of our ongoing commitment to strengths based approaches, we have highlighted improvements to health factors that contribute to positive health outcomes.

The Summary presents the latest facts and evidence and provides the workforce with the tools to keep up to date on the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, and in a way that is easily understood.

The Summary highlights the areas whereAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people’s health continues to improve, such as the decline in infant mortality rates, a decline in the death rate from avoidable causes, and a decline in the death rate from cardiovascular disease.

There have also been improvements in eye health – for example, there has been a decrease in the prevalence of active trachoma among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in some remote communities.

The percentage of people who are daily smokers continues to fall which is another positive step as tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for ill health.

Introduction

This Summary of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health status 2017 is based on the Overview of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health status 2017 produced by the Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet. It provides information about:

  • population
  • births
  • deaths
  • major health problems
  • health risk and protective factors.

Many reports and publications about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people focus on the negative differences between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and non-Indigenous people. We pledge to also report positive differences and improvements in health whenever the information is available.

In this Summary, as part of our ongoing commitment to strengths based approaches, we have highlighted improvements to health and factors that contribute to positive health outcomes .

Most of the information in this Summary comes from government reports, particularly those produced by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW).

Data for these reports come from:

  • health surveys (for example, the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health surveys)
  • hospitals and other government agencies (such as the birth and death registration systems and the hospital in-patient collections)
  • doctors across Australia.

The accuracy of identification of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in health data collections varies across the country

In this Summary, unless otherwise stated, statistics collected in the following jurisdictions New South Wales (NSW), Queensland (Qld), Western Australia (WA), South Australia (SA) and the Northern Territory (NT) are considered to be adequate, for example, for mortality.

However, for some collections such as hospitalisation, data is considered adequate across Australia.

Due to the difference in the age structures of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population and the non-Indigenous population (see Figure 1), any comparison of rates between the populations requires the data to be age-standardised (see Glossary).

All comparisons of rates in this Summary will be age-standardised unless otherwise stated.

How do historical and political factors influence health?

Aboriginal people have lived in Australia for at least 45,000 years [1] and possibly up to 120,000 years [2]. Torres Strait Islander people first lived on the islands in the Torres Straits and now live across mainland Australia and the Straits [2].

Before colonisation by Europeans, both Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islander people enjoyed a semi-nomadic lifestyle [2].

They lived in family and community groups and moved across their own territories according to the seasons.

The transition from living as active hunter-gatherers to a mostly inactive lifestyle with a Westernised diet has had serious effects on their health [3].

Colonisation led to the introduction of certain policies that have had a negative impact on quality of life and health.

Many of these policies have contributed to past and continuing experiences of:

  • racism
  • discrimination
  • the forced removal of children
  • loss of identity, language, culture and land [4].

What social factors affect people’s health?

The social determinants of health are the social factors that influence health [6]. They include the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age.

These conditions are created by policies, political systems and social customs [6, 7]. Other social factors that contribute to the gap in health between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous people include education, employment, income and the physical environment where they live.

Education

According to the 2016 Australian Census [8], among 20-24 year old Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people:
• 47% completed year 12 (compared with only 32% in 2006)
• women were more likely than men to have completed year 12 (51% compared with 43%)
• people living in urban areas were more likely to have completed year 12 compared with those living in rural areas (50% compared with 34%)
• the highest proportions of people completing year 12 were in the ACT (66%) and Qld (55%); the lowest proportion was in the NT (25%).

An ABS report about schools [9] showed that in 2016:

• there were 207,852 school students who identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, which was an increase of 3.6% from 20151
• 59.8% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students who started secondary school in year 7/8 continued through to year 12.
A national report on schooling in Australia [10] showed that in 2017:
• at least 77% of year 3 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students were at or above the national minimum standard for reading, writing, spelling, grammar and punctuation, and numeracy
• at least 69% of year 5 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students were at or above the national minimum standard for reading, writing, spelling, grammar and punctuation, and numeracy.

Employment

According to the 2016 Australian Census [8]:
• 47% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people between the ages of 15 and 64 years were employed
• 70% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 to 24 years were either in full- or part-time employment, education
or training
• the top three areas of employment in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people worked were: health care and social
assistance (15%); public administration and safety (12%); and education and training (10%)
• Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men were most likely to be employed in construction (17%) and women were most likely to be employed in health care and social assistance (24%).

Income

According to the 2016 Census [8]:
• 20% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people reported an equivalised2 weekly income of $1,000 or more compared with 13% in 2011 [8, 11]
• 53% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people reported an equivalised weekly household income of between $150 and $799 (compared with 51% of non-Indigenous people reporting an equivalised weekly household income of between $400 and $1249) [8].

NACCHO Aboriginal Health Research News : Featuring @FaCtS_Study @Mayi_Kuwayu @HealthInfoNet and @LowitjaInstitut #ResearchIntoPolicy New report spotlights governments’ secrecy on Indigenous health program outcomes

The current Closing the Gap Refresh process has again highlighted the need for Governments to ensure effective engagement with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander organisations and communities.

Together we can make informed decisions about creating sustainable and positive change.

This has to be done in a way where both insights and power are genuinely shared, not one way traffic.”

Romlie Mokak, CEO of the Lowitja Institute.

 

1. COMMUNITY PRIORITIES WILL TRANSLATE INTO EFFECTIVE ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER POLICIES

2. Study Question:  What would it take to address Family Violence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities?

3. HealthInfoNet : Access to online Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health information just got easier

1. COMMUNITY PRIORITIES WILL TRANSLATE INTO EFFECTIVE ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER POLICIES

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander leadership in health research and evidence-based policy is critical to closing the gap for Australia’s First Peoples’ health.

A Community priorities into policy forum was held in Canberra Monday  highlighting three research projects to inform strategic decisions in policy development, service delivery and evaluation.

These projects reflect Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community priorities, and were commissioned and funded by the Lowitja Institute.

Governments need increased focus and collaboration with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander organisations and communities to grow the knowledge and evidence base, and face future challenges in holding mainstream health organisations to account.

“Each of the projects discussed at this forum contribute to an emerging body of research on the value of engaging Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in every stage of health research,” Mr Mokak said.

Research leaders highlighting how deficit discourses have real world outcomes for health and wellbeing:

Download Copy

deficit-discourse-summary-report

“Discourses of deficit occur when discussion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander affairs is reduced to a focus on failure and dysfunction, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identity becomes defined in negative terms, eclipsing the complex reasons for inequalities, and overlooking diversity, capability and strength,” Dr Hannah Bulloch from National Centre for Indigenous Studies said.

Professor Margaret Kelaher from the University of Melbourne will argue that the potential benefits of programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are not being fully realised due to limitations in how evaluations are being conducted, what is being evaluated, and how the evidence generated is being translated into action. She will present an evaluation framework to improve the benefits of evaluation for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

SEE CROAKEY REVIEW

Information about evaluation tenders for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health programs is locked away by governments, according to a new research report.

Original Published here

A review of publicly advertised evaluation tenders over the past ten years found that only five percent of tender documents and 33 percent of evaluation reports were publicly available.

The report, An Evaluation Framework to Improve Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health, makes sweeping recommendations to improve the transparency and accountability of evaluations, as well as the quality of tender processes.

Prepared for the Lowitja Institute by the University of Melbourne’s Margaret Kelaher, Joanne Luke, Angeline Ferdinand and Daniel Chamravi, the report is one of a number of new publications launched at a Community Priorities into Policies forum, convened by the Lowita Institute in Canberra today.

Follow #ResearchIntoPolicy for live tweeting of the discussions, which are being covered by UTS scholar and Croakey contributing editor Dr Megan Williams for the Croakey Conference News Service.

The report calls for tender documents, evaluation reports and responses to evaluation to be stored on a publicly accessible database, so they are accessible to the communities in which data are collected.

Reforms needed

It also calls for sweeping reforms to evaluation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health programs to ensure they better meet the needs of communities and follow the principles of ethical research.

The researchers said the failure to release evaluation reports was a frustration not only for evaluators, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, and program implementers – but also commissioners.

“The value of releasing evaluation reports was recognised by all parties,” the report said. “Although decisions not to release evaluation reports are typically made by commissioning agencies, these decisions often reflect political rather than program imperatives.

“Exceptions were cases where there were concerns about the quality of the evaluation; however, this is likely to make up a small proportion of the reports that are not released.”

The researchers said the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet was moving to release all evaluations in either report or summary form, but that past evaluations should also be released.

“Lack of access to information about evaluations and their findings is a significant barrier to building the evidence base in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health. It also prevents evidence-based priority setting and quality assurance processes around evaluation.”

Ethical gaps

The report noted that evaluation contracts, particularly around intellectual property, are often at odds with community expectations and ethical frameworks.

“The most important finding from this review of government tenders is that there is no consistency regarding ethics requirements for evaluations involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Nor is there an ethic to give Aboriginal communities a voice in the evaluation through meaningful engagement or control of the evaluation.”

The report also found that, although there were some positive examples, accepted principles for working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are not widely or consistently integrated into programs, tender documents or program evaluations.

For example, principles of holistic concept of health, partnerships and shared responsibility, cultural respect, engagement, capacity building, accountability and governance were not well integrated into evaluations.

“It was not uncommon for a program to stipulate that its outcomes were related to holistic health but then have indicators that were largely biomedical,” the researchers reported.

The report proposes a framework for the evaluation of policies, programs and services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, noting that the lack of a coherent framework has meant “a reduction in the quantity, quality, scope and use of available evidence”.

While efforts were underway to improve evaluation processes, the researchers said it was recognised that systemic change was required.

They called for tender processes to support evaluation proposals that are most likely to benefit Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, and for evaluation contracts and agreements to be consistent with principles for working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and ethical frameworks.

A directory of current evaluations should be developed, and training should be provided to specifically support Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander leadership in evaluation, the researchers said.

The report gives several examples of positive approaches to evaluation, but notes that “the most constant criticism from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities about evaluation and other types of research is that the findings are not translated into action and thus not of benefit to communities”.

For example, many of the issues examined in the Royal Commission into the Protection and Detention of Children in the Northern Territory arose from unaddressed recommendations in the 2007 Little Children are Sacred report and the 1991 report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Deaths in Custody.

Press Release Continued

A project led by the Secretariat National Aboriginal and Islander Child Care will be presented by Professor Kerry Arabena, also from the University of Melbourne. The project looks at service delivery integration initiatives targeted to the early childhood development needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

The Lowitja Institute Research Leadership Award announced at the event and wa presented by the Ms Kate Latimer, CEO of the Cranlana Program

and ’s 2018 Leadership Award goes to , a Chief Investigator on the . Congratulations Ray

The Australian National University is seeking partnerships with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities to conduct research to find out what communities need to promote and improve safety for families.  We want to partner and work with local organisations and communities to make sure the research benefits the community.
 
Who are we?
We work at the Australian National University (ANU). The study is led by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander researchers.  Professor Victoria Hovane (Ngarluma, Malgnin/Kitja, Gooniyandi), along with Associate Professor Raymond Lovett (Wongaibon, Ngiyampaa) and Dr Jill Guthrie (Wiradjuri) from NCEPH, and Professor Matthew Gray of the Centre for Social Research and Methods (CSRM) at ANU will be leading the study.
 
Study Question:  What would it take to address Family Violence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities?
 
How are we going to gather information to answer the study question?
A Community Researcher (who we would give funds to employ) would capture the data by interviewing 100 community members, running 3 focus groups for Men /  Women / Youth (over 16).
We would interview approx. 5 community members to hear about the story in your community.
We know Family Violence happens in all communities.  We don’t want to find out the prevalence, we want to know what your communities needs to feel safe. We will also be mapping the services in your community, facilities and resources available in a community.  All this information will be given back to your community.
 
What support would we provide your service?
We are able to support your organisation up to $40,000 (including funds for $30 vouchers), this would also help to employ a Community Researcher.
Community participants would be provided with a $30 voucher to complete a survey, another $30 for the focus group, and another $30 for the interview for their time.
What will we give your organisation?
We can give you back all the data that we have captured from your community, (DE identified and confidentialised of course).We can give you the data in any form you like, plus create a Community Report for your community.  There might be some questions you would like to ask your community, and we can include them in the survey.
 
How long would we be involved with your community / organisation?
Approximately 2 months
 
How safe is the data we collect?
The data is safe. It will be DE identified and Confidentialised.  Our final report will reflect what Communities (up to 20) took part in the study, but your data and community will be kept secret.  Meaning, no one will know what data came from your community.
 
If you think this study would be of benefit to your community, or if you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact Victoria Hovane and the FaCtS team on 1800 531 600 or email facts.study@anu.edu.au.

 

3. HealthInfoNet : Access to online Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health information just got easier

 

 

The Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet this week launched a new responsive design website.

VIEW HERE

The HealthInfoNet has been bringing together the latest information, evidence, research and knowledge about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health in one place and making it freely accessible for over 20 years.

A comprehensive custom built database and re design of the front of the web resource means that the new responsive design will support the workforce more than ever before, on any platform in any location.

HealthInfoNet Director, Professor Neil Drew, says ‘Now more than ever those working in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health need prompt access to relevant, reliable information as well as quick, easy search options. Our new evidenced based responsive design has been the result of in depth review of site mapping and analytics, a national user survey of what users want and access most and extensive collaboration with users and other stakeholders across the country. This has resulted in the design of a cleaner, visual and more accessible site which can now be accessed on any platform be it a tablet or mobile phone”.

Renae Bastholm, HealthInfoNet IT Manager who developed the responsive site said ”The content you know and trust is still there, but a simpler and easier navigation will mean a shorter search time to get to what you need and a quicker loading time.  We have structured the new site to be intuitive so our users don’t have to think too much about navigation. The new platform allows us to custom design the information to our users’ needs and quickly display information”.

“The real dividend” says Professor Drew “is that for a site of this size and a national user base with diverse needs, is the ease of getting directly to the information you need when you need it. This supports the time poor health workforce and ensures the relevant information gets to where it’s needed most. Updating the site and utilising the latest technology to meet users’ needs is an ongoing focus”.

Both the HealthInfoNet and the Alcohol and Other Drugs Knowledge Centre are now available in this new format. www.Aodknowledgecentre.ecu.edu.au (note new location).

NACCHO Aboriginal Health : New publication confirms important improvements in the health of Aboriginal people

 

 ” The Overview of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health status 2016 provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent indicators of the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

The Overview shows that that the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people continues to improve slowly and there have been a decline in the death rates for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and also a significant closing of the gap in death rates between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous people. The infant mortality rate has declined significantly. “

Dr Michael Adams, Senior Research Fellow, Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet, Western Australia and Associate Professor, Ted Wilkes pictured above launching the report on Close the Gap Day 2017

The Overview is our flagship publication and has proved to be a valuable resource for a very wide range of health professionals, policy makers and others working in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health sector. 

The Overview provides an accurate, evidence based summary of many health conditions in a form that makes it easy for time poor professionals to keep up to date with the current health status of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people throughout Australia. We have a greater focus on strengths based approaches which you will see in our introduction.”

HealthInfoNet Director, Professor Neil Drew

Download PowerPoint 1   overview-2016-key-facts

Download PowerPoint 2  overview-2016-key-facts-figures-tables

There have also been improvements in a number of areas contributing to health status such as the proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers who smoked during pregnancy has decreased.

There has been a slight decrease in the proportion of low birth weight babies born to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers between 2004 and 2014. Age-standardised death rates for respiratory disease in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and NT declined by 26% over the period 1998-2012 for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/health-facts/overviews

Key facts

Population

  • At 30 June 2016, the estimated Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population was 744,956.
  • In 2016, it was estimated that NSW had the highest number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (229,951people, 31% of the total Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population).
  • In 2016, it was estimated that the NT had the highest proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in its population, with 30% of the NT population identifying as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander.
  • In 2016, around 35% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people lived in a capital city.
  • The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population is much younger than the non-Indigenous population.

Births and pregnancy outcomes

  • In 2015, there were 18,537 births registered in Australia with one or both parents identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander (6.1% of all births registered).
  • In 2015, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers were younger than non-Indigenous mothers; the median age was 25.1 years for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers and 31 years for all mothers.
  • In 2015, total fertility rates were 2,271 births per 1,000 for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women and 1,807 per 1,000 for all women.
  • In 2014, the average birthweight of babies born to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers was 3,215 grams compared with 3,355 grams for babies born to non-Indigenous mothers.
  • In 2014, the proportion of low birthweight (LBW) babies born to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women was twice that of non-Indigenous women (12% compared with 6.2%).
  • For 2004 to 2014 there was a slight decrease in the proportion of LBW babies born to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers.

Mortality

  • For 2015, the age-standardised death rate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT was 1.7 times the rate for non-Indigenous people.
  • Between 1998 and 2013, there was a 16% reduction in the death rates for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT.
  • For Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people born 2010-2012, life expectancy was estimated to be 69.1 years for males and 73.7 years for females, around 10-11 years less than the estimates for non-Indigenous males and females.
  • For 2013-2015, age-specific death rates were higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT than for non-Indigenous people across all age-groups, and were much higher in the young and middle-adult years.
  • For 2013-2015, the infant mortality rate was higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants than for non-Indigenous infants living in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT; the rate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants was highest in the NT.
  • For 1998 to 2014, there were significant declines in infant mortality rates for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants.
  • In 2013, the leading causes of death among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT were cardiovascular disease, neoplasms (mainly cancers) and injury.
  • For 2008-2012, for direct maternal deaths the rate ratio was 2.2 times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women than for non-Indigenous women.

Hospitalisation

  • In 2014-15, 4.4% of all hospital separations were for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
  • In 2014-15, the age-adjusted separation rate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was 2.4 times higher than that for non-Indigenous people.
  • In 2014-15, the main cause of hospitalisation for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was for ‘Factors influencing health status and contact with health services’ (mostly for care involving dialysis), responsible for 50% of all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander separations.
  • In 2014-15, the rate of overall potentially preventable hospitalisations was around three times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than those for non-Indigenous people.

Selected health conditions

Cardiovascular disease (CVD)

  • In 2012-2013, 13% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people reported having a long-term heart or related condition; after age-adjustment, these conditions were around 1.2 times more common for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for non-Indigenous people.
  • In 2011, CVD was the third largest contributor (12%) to total disease burden among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
  • In 2014-15, hospitalisation rates for circulatory disease were almost twice as high for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for non-Indigenous people.
  • In 2015, ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of death of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT; the age-adjusted death rate due to ischaemic heart disease for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was twice the rate for non-Indigenous people.
  • For 1998 to 2014 the gap in CVD mortality rates between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous people narrowed.

Cancer

  • For 2006-2010, age-adjusted cancer incidence rates were slightly lower for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in NSW, Qld, WA and the NT than for non-Indigenous people.
  • For 2006-2010, the most common cancers diagnosed among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in NSW, Qld, WA and the NT were lung and breast (females) cancers.
  • In 2011, cancer and other neoplasms (cancerous and non-cancerous tumours) were responsible for 9.4% of the total burden of disease among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
  • In 2014-15, age-adjusted hospitalisation rates for cancer were lower for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in NSW, Qld, WA and the NT than for non-Indigenous people.
  • For 2009-2013, the age-adjusted death rate for cancer for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT was 1.3 times higher than for non-Indigenous people.

Diabetes

  • In 2012-2013, 13% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people reported having diabetes; after age-adjustment, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were more than three times more likely to report having some form of diabetes than non-Indigenous people.
  • In 2015, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were more likely to have diabetes recorded as the principal cause of hospital admission compared to non-Indigenous people.
  • In 2015, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in NSW, Qld, SA, WA and the NT died from diabetes at five times the rate of non-Indigenous people.

Social and emotional wellbeing

  • In 2012-2013, after age-adjustment, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were 2.7 times as likely as non-Indigenous people to feel high or very high levels of psychological distress.
  • In 2014-2015, 68% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over experienced at least one significant stressor in the previous 12 months.
  • In 2012-2013, 91% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people reported on feelings of calmness and peacefulness, happiness, fullness of life and energy either some, most, or all of the time.
  • In 2014-2015, more than half of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over reported an overall life satisfaction rating of at least 8 out of 10.
  • In 2014-15, there were 16,941 hospital separations with a principal diagnosis of ICD ‘Mental and behavioural disorders’ identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander.
  • In 2015, the death rate for ICD ‘Intentional self-harm’ (suicide) for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was two times the rate reported for non-Indigenous people.

Kidney health

  • For 2010-2014, after age-adjustment, the notification rate of end-stage renal disease was 6.6 times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for non-Indigenous people.
  • In 2011, kidney and urinary diseases accounted for 2.5% of the total burden of disease among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
  • In 2014-15, ‘care involving dialysis’ was the most common reason for hospitalisation among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
  • For 2010-2014, the age-adjusted death rate from kidney disease was 2.7 times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and NT than for non-Indigenous people.

Injury, including family violence

  • In 2014-15, after age-adjustment, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were hospitalised for injury at almost twice the rate for non-Indigenous people.
  • In 2014-15, 19% of injury-related hospitalisations among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were for assaults, compared with 2% among non-Indigenous people.
  • In 2015, age-adjusted death rates from intentional self-harm were two times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT than for non-Indigenous people, land transport accidents nearly three times higher and injury from assault over eight times higher.

Respiratory disease

  • In 2012-2013, 31% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people reported having a respiratory condition. After age-adjustment, the level of respiratory disease was 1.2 times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander than non-Indigenous people.
  • In 2012-2013, 18% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people reported having asthma.
  • In 2011, respiratory diseases were responsible for 7.9% of the total burden of disease among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
  • In 2014-15, age-adjusted hospitalisation rates for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were 5.0 times higher for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 3.1 times higher for influenza and pneumonia, 2.1 times higher for whooping cough and 1.8 times higher for asthma and acute upper respiratory infections, than for non-Indigenous people.
  • In 2015, chronic lower respiratory disease was the leading cause of death from respiratory disease and the third highest cause of death overall for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT.
  • For 1998 to 2012, age-adjusted death rates for respiratory disease in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and NT declined by 26% for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

Eye health

  • In 2015-2016, after age-adjustment, vision impairment and blindness among Indigenous adults were both three times higher than in non-Indigenous adults.
  • In 2012-2013, eye and sight problems were reported by 33% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
  • In 2012-2013, myopia and hyperopia for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were reported at 0.8 and 1.1 times the proportions for non-Indigenous people.
  • In 2015, the estimated prevalence of active trachoma among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 5-9 years living in at-risk communities in the WA, SA and the NT was 4.6%.
  • In the period 2011-12 to 2012-13, after age-adjustment, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders were less likely to be hospitalised for diseases of the eye and adnexa than non-Indigenous people.

Ear health and hearing

  • In 2012-2013, ear disease/hearing problems were reported by 12% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
  • In 2014-15, the hospitalisation rate for ear disease for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 4-14 years was 1.4 times higher than the rate for non-Indigenous children.

Oral health

  • In 2014-15, the proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 4-14 years with reported tooth or gum problems was 34%, a decrease from 39% in 2008.
  • In 2012-13, around 49% of adults reported no tooth loss; around 47% had lost one or more teeth; and around 5% reported complete tooth loss.
  • In 2014-15, age-adjusted national potentially preventable hospitalisation rates for dental conditions were 1.3 times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for non-Indigenous people.

Disability

  • In 2012, the overall rate of disability among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians was 23%; after age adjustment, the rate of disability for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander was 1.7 times the rate for non-Indigenous people.
  • In 2014-15, 6% of disability service users were Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, with most aged under 50 years (84%).

Communicable diseases

  • For 2009-2013, after age-adjustment, the notification rate for tuberculosis was 11.3 times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for Australian born non-Indigenous people.
  • In 2015, the age-adjusted notification rate for hepatitis B was three times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for non-Indigenous people.
  • For 2011- 2015, there was a 22% decline in the hepatitis B notification rates for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
  • In 2015, the age-adjusted notification rate for hepatitis C was almost five times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for non-Indigenous people.
  • For 2012-2014, the average notification rate for Haemophilus influenzae type b among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was 5.3 times the rate in the total population.
  • For 2011-2014, the rate of invasive pneumococcal disease for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people decreased.
  • In 2007-2010, the age-adjusted notification rate of meningococcal disease was 2.7 times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for non-Indigenous people; the rate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0-4 years was 3.8 times higher than for non-Indigenous children.
  • In 2015, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people had higher crude notification rates for gonorrhoea, syphilis and chlamydia than non-Indigenous people.
  • In 2015, age-adjusted notification rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis were 1.3 times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander than non-Indigenous people.

Factors contributing to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health

Nutrition and breastfeeding

  • In 2012-2013, 54% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people reported eating an adequate amount of fruit per day but only 8% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people reported eating an adequate amount of vegetables per day.
  • In 2012-2013, on average, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people consumed 41% of their total daily energy in the form of discretionary foods.
  • In 2012-2013, 83% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people reported consuming dairy foods daily.
  • In 2012-2013, 54% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people reported consuming sugar daily.
  • In 2012-2013, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in remote areas were more likely to eat bush food compared with non-Indigenous people.
  • In 2011, the joint effect of all dietary risks combined (13 identified) contributed 9.7% to the burden of disease for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
  • In 2012-2013, 83% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0 – 3 years had been breastfed, compared with 93% of non-Indigenous children.

Physical activity

  • In 2012-2013, 47% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults in non-remote areas met the target of 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on most days.
  • In 2012-2013, after age-adjustment, 61% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in non-remote areas reported that they were physically inactive, a similar level to that of non-Indigenous people.

Bodyweight

  • In 2012-2013, 69% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults were classified as overweight or obese; after age-adjustment, the level of obesity/overweight was 1.2 times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for non-Indigenous people.
  • In 2012-2013, around 30% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 2-14 years were overweight or obese.

Immunisation

  • In 2016, 95% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged five years were fully immunised against the recommended vaccine-preventable diseases.

Tobacco use

  • In 2014-2015, 39% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over reported they were current smokers; after age-adjustment, this proportion was 2.8 times higher than the proportion among non-Indigenous people.
  • In 2014-2015, 36% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people reported they had never smoked.
  • In 2014, 45% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, compared with 13% of non-Indigenous mothers.
  • For 2009 to 2014, the proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers who smoked during pregnancy decreased.

Alcohol use

  • In 2011, alcohol use was responsible for 8.3% of the total burden of disease among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
  • In 2012-2013, 23% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults abstained from alcohol; this level was 1.6 times higher than among the non-Indigenous population.
  • In 2012-2013, after age-adjustment, lifetime drinking risk was similar for both the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous population.
  • For 2010 to 2013, there was a significant decline for risky drinking in the proportion (from 32% to 23%) of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 14 years and older.
  • For 2011-12 to 2012-13, after age-adjustment, for a principal diagnosis related to alcohol use, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males were hospitalised at 4.5 times and females at 3.6 times the rates of non-Indigenous males and females.
  • In 2008-2012, the age-adjusted death rates for alcohol-related deaths for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was 4.9 times higher than for non-Indigenous people.

Illicit drug use

  • In 2011, illicit substance use was responsible for 3.7% of the total burden of disease for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
  • In 2014-2015 (69%) and 2012-2013 (52%) of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and older reported they had never used illicit substances.
  • In 2014-2015, 30% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over reported that they had used an illicit substance in the previous 12 months.
  • In 2014-2015, hospitalisation for mental/behavioural disorders from use of amphetamines had the highest rate of separations due to drug use and was more than three times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than non-Indigenous people.
  • In 2010-2014, the rate of drug-induced deaths was 1.9 times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT than for non-Indigenous people.

Volatile substance use

  • For 2012-13 to 2014-15, hospitalisation due to poisoning either accidental or from toxic effects of organic solvents including petroleum derivatives, glues and paints was between two to five times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for non-Indigenous people.
  • For 2012-13 to 2014-15, hospitalisation separations due to mental and behavioural disorders from use of volatile solvents, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were hospitalised at a rate nine times higher than non-Indigenous people.
  • For 2008-2012, deaths from accidental poisoning by and exposure to noxious substances for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and NT was nearly twice as many as non-Indigenous males.

Environmental health

  • In 2014-15, 21% of Aboriginal and Torres Islander people were living in overcrowded households.
  • In 2014-15, 82% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households were living in houses of an acceptable standard.
  • In 2014-15, 26% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households reported structural issues within their dwelling.
  • In 2014-15, over 90% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households reported that they had access to working facilities for washing people clothes and bedding; working facilities for preparing food and working sewerage facilities.
  • In 2014-15, after age adjustment, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were hospitalised for diseases related to environmental health at 2.3 times the rate of non-Indigenous people.
  • For 2010-2014, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT died as a result of diseases associated with poor environmental health at 1.7 times the rate of non-Indigenous people

The Overview, which draws on the most up-to-date, authoritative sources and undertakes some special analyses, is freely available on the HealthInfoNet web resource, along with downloadable PowerPoint presentations of key facts, tables, and figures.

It is an important part of the HealthInfoNet’s commitment to collaborative knowledge exchange, which contributes to closing the gap in health between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and other Australians by making research and other knowledge available in a form that is easily understood and readily accessible to both practitioners and policy makers.

HealthInfoNet Director, Professor Neil Drew says ‘The Overview is our flagship publication and has proved to be a valuable resource for a very wide range of health professionals, policy makers and others working in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health sector.

The Overview provides an accurate, evidence based summary of many health conditions in a form that makes it easy for time poor professionals to keep up to date with the current health status of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people throughout Australia. We have a greater focus on strengths based approaches which you will see in our introduction.’

About the HealthInfoNet: Now in its 20th year, this is a massive Internet resource that informs practice and policy in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health by making up to date research and other knowledge readily accessible via any platform.

In this way, the HealthInfoNet contributes to closing the gap in health between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and other Australians.

Working in the area of translational research with a population health focus, the HealthInfoNet makes research and other information freely available in a form that has immediate, practical utility for practitioners and policy-makers in the area of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health, enabling them to make decisions based on the best available evidence www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au

NACCHO #NDW16 Aboriginal Health : New chronic disease portal provides quick access for workforce

Chronic Disease Portal

  ” The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health performance framework 2014 report noted that chronic disease accounts for two-thirds of the health gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and non-Indigenous Australians.

The majority ( 70%) of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths in 2008-12 were due to chronic diseases (e.g. circulatory disease, cancer, diabetes, respiratory disease, and kidney disease).

Our new portal will save busy health practitioners considerable time by providing them with up to date information and resources about chronic disease “

HealthInfoNet Director Professor Neil Drew,

Edith Cowan University’s Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet has launched a new online portal for the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander chronic disease workforce. The portal at

CHRONIC DISEASE WORKFORCE PORTAL

is part of an ongoing commitment by the HealthInfoNet to keep the sector informed about health conditions affecting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

The portal provides information about chronic conditions that are a problem for all Australians but particularly for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people including: heart disease, diabetes, respiratory (lung) diseases, cancers and kidney disease.  It also covers physical activity and nutrition as these factors influence many chronic conditions.

Information has been chosen for the portal because it is written in plain language and has practical application in daily work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients with chronic disease or disease risk.

The portal provides access to health promotion resources, health practitioner tools and information about programs that promote healthy lifestyles and chronic disease management for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

It also highlights workforce opportunities for chronic disease workers, including job vacancies, events, training and funding.

There are five yarning places dedicated to specific chronic condition health topics which allow those working in each area to share ideas and information and are free to join.

CHRONIC DISEASE WORKFORCE PORTAL

DOWNLOAD the NACCHO Aboriginal Health Newspaper

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