NACCHO Research Alert : @NRHAlliance Aboriginal health risk factors #rural and #remote populations

 ” Health risk factors like smoking, excessive drinking, illicit drug use, lack of physical activity, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake and overweight have powerful influences on health, and there are frequently clear inter-regional differences between the prevalence of these.

While it can be argued that there is some degree of personal choice involved in whether individuals have a poor health risk profile, there is clear evidence that external factors such as environment, opportunity, and community culture each have very strong influences.

For example, access to affordable healthy food can often be poor in smaller communities and this, coupled with lower incomes in these areas, adversely affects the quality of peoples’ diets, the prevalence of overweight, and consequently the prevalence of chronic disease.”

From the National Rural Health Alliance Research View HERE

National data pertaining to personal health risk factors typically comes from the ABS National Health Survey and the AIHW National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS). Some State and Territory Health Departments run their own health surveys (which cannot be aggregated nationally with each other or with the ABS survey because of the different methodologies and definitions used (think different State rail gauges). Consequently data describing aspects of health in regional and especially remote areas can be thin (ie with imprecise estimates in some or all areas).

Example 1

Table 14: Fruit and vegetable consumption, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people 15+ years, 2012-13

Roughly 60% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians 15+ in Major cities and regional/rural areas have inadequate fruit intake, closer to 50% in remote areas (compared with around 50% of all Australians 18+ in major cities and regional/rural areas).

Roughly 95% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians 15+ in Major cities and regional/rural areas have inadequate vegetable intake, perhaps higher (98%) in Very remote areas (compared with around 90%-94% of all Australians 18+ in major cities and regional/rural areas).

Example 2

NACCHO provided graphic

Table 16 Below : Overweight and Obesity, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people 15+ years, 2012-13

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in rural/regional and Remote areas (29%-33%) were a little more likely to be overweight than those in Major cities (28%), with those in Very Remote areas (26%) least likely to be overweight.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Inner regional areas (41%) were more likely to be obese than those in Major cities (38%), but those in Outer regional (36%) and remote areas (~33%) were less likely to be obese.

Overall, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Inner Regional areas were most likely to be overweight/obese (70%), those in Major cities, Outer Regional and Remote areas were less likely to be overweight/obese (~66%), while those in Very Remote areas were the least likely to be overweight/obese (59% )

At the time of writing, the most recent National Health Survey was conducted in 2014-15[1], while the most recent AIHW NDSHS[2] was conducted in 2016, with most recently available results from the 2013 NDSHS. The most recent ABS Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey[3] was conducted in 2012-13.

Some organisations (eg the Public Health Information Development Unit (PHIDU)) have calculated modelled estimates for small areas (eg SLA’s and PHN’s), where the prevalence of some risk factors has been predicted based on the age, sex and socioeconomic profile of the population living there.

Some sites (eg ABS) present risk factor data as crude rates, other sites (eg PHIDU) present risk factor data as age-standardised rates.  The advantage of the age-standardised rates is that the effect of age is largely removed from inter-population comparisons.

For example, older populations (eg those in rural/regional areas) would be expected to have higher average blood pressure than younger (eg Major cities) populations even though the underlying age-specific rates happened to be identical in both populations (because older people tend to have higher blood pressure than younger people).

While crude rates for the older population will be higher, the age-standardised rates in such a comparison would be the same – indicating a higher rate that is entirely explainable by the older age of one of the populations.

Both crude and age standardised rates are useful in understanding the health of rural and remote populations.

 


[1] http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/4364.0.55.001

[3] http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4727.0.55.0012012-13?OpenDocumentSmoking

Table 1: Smoking status, by remoteness, 2013 and 2014-15

MC

IR

OR/Remote

Percentage

Current daily smoker (18+) (crude) 2014-15 (a)

13.0

16.7

20.9

Current smoker (18+) (Age standardised) 2014-15 (b) (includes daily, weekly, social etc smoking)

14.6

19.0

22.4

MC

IR

OR

Remote+ Very Remote

Current smoker (daily, weekly, or fortnightly) 14+ (crude) 2013 (c)

14.2

17.6

22.6

24.6

Current smoker (daily, weekly, or fortnightly) 14+ (Age standardised) 2013 (d)

14.2

18.6

23.6

24.4

Mean number of cigarettes smoked per week, smokers aged 14 years or older 2013 (e)

85.9

113.1

109.4

126.2

Sources:

Compared with Major cities (13%), the prevalence of daily smoking by people 18 years and older in Inner regional (17%) and Outer regional/Remote areas (21%) is higher.

The NDSH survey reflects these trends albeit with a slightly different age group (14+) and a different definition of smoking (daily plus less frequently), but the NDSH survey adds detail for remote areas where smoking rates are higher again (around 25% versus around 23% in Outer regional).

In addition, the average number of cigarettes smoked by each smoker is higher in regional/rural areas (~110/week) than in Major cities (86/week), and higher again (126/week) in remote areas.

 

Smoking – exposure, uptake, establishment, quitting

Table 2: Smoking characteristics by Remoteness, 2013, 2014 and 2014-15

MC

IR

OR

remote

8.8

17.8

19.3

27.8

Proportion of pregnant women who gave birth and smoked at any time during the pregnancy (2013, crude, National Perinatal Data Collection, exposure tables, Table 5.1.2 )

8.5

17.0

18.9

27.5

Proportion of pregnant women who gave birth and smoked in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy (2013, crude, National Perinatal Data Collection) exposure tables, Table 5.2.2)

3.6

3.1

4.1

*9.4

Proportion of dependent children (aged 0–14) who live in a household with a daily smoker who smokes inside the home (2013, crude, NDSHS exposure tables, Table 6.3)

2.5

2.0

2.7

*2.9

Proportion of adults aged 18 or older who live in a household with a daily smoker who smokes inside the home (2013, crude, NDSHS, exposure tables, Table 7.3)

16.2

15.4

14.7

15.5

Average age at which people aged 14–24 first smoked a full cigarette (2013, crude, NDSHS, uptake tables, Table 9.3)

17.8

22.7

17.8

28.3

Proportion of 12–17 year old secondary school students smoking at least a few puffs of a cigarette (2014, crude, Australian Secondary Students Alcohol and Drug Survey 2014, uptake tables, Table 10.3

54.7

61.1

64.9

67.2

Proportion of persons (aged 18 or older) who have smoked a full cigarette (2013, crude,  NDSHS, uptake tables, Table 10.8)

2.5

3.4

2.5

3.7

Proportion of secondary school students (aged 12–17) who have smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime (2014, crude, Australian Secondary Students Alcohol and Drug Survey 2014, transition tables, Table 2.3)

20.2

25.9

44.1

45.2

Proportion of young people (aged 18–24) who have smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime (2013, crude, NDSHS, transition tables, Table 2.6)

21.3

16.8

19.0

15.5

Quitting: Proportion successfully gave up for more than a month (2013, crude, NDSHS, cessation tables, Table 4.3)

29.2

34.2

31.7

32.9

Quitting, Proportion unsuccessful (2013, crude, NDSHS, cessation tables, Table 4.3)

46.3

48.0

47.4

45.2

Quitting: Proportion any attempt (2013, crude, NDSHS, cessation tables, Table 4.3)

35.2

36.3

36.1

36.0

Mean age at which ex-smokers aged 18 or older reported no longer smoking (2013, crude, NDSHS, cessation tables, Table 11.2)

53.1

51.5

46.3

45.0

The proportion of ever smokers aged 18 or older who did not smoke in the last 12 months (2013, crude, NDSHS, cessation tables, Table 12.3)

4.9

6.0

4.8

7.0

Proportion of secondary school students (aged 12–17) who were weekly smokers (2014, crude, Australian Secondary Students Alcohol and Drug Survey 2014, established tables, Table 1.3)

6.9

9.3

6.8

10.4

Proportion of secondary school students (aged 12–17) who were monthly smokers (2014, crude, Australian Secondary Students Alcohol and Drug Survey 2014, established tables, Table 13.3)

13.0

16.7

21.2

18.8

Proportion of adults aged 18 or older who are daily smokers (2014-15, crude, ABS NHS, established tables, Table 3.3)

10.9

7.8

2.9

n.p.

Proportion of smokers aged 18 or older who are occasional smokers (smoke weekly or less than weekly) (2014-15, crude, ABS NHS, established tables, Table 14.3)

40.1

44.7

42.3

52.7

Proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 18 or older who are daily smokers (2012-13, crude, ABS Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2012–13, established tables, Table 8i.3)

Source: http://www.aihw.gov.au/alcohol-and-other-drugs/data/ (sighted 11/7/17)
Note: Those estimates above with asterix have large standard errors and should be treated carefully.

Women in rural and remote areas were much more likely to smoke during pregnancy, with 28% of women in remote areas smoking during pregnancy, compared with 18-19% in regional/rural areas, and 9% in Major cities.

It is unclear whether exposure to environmental tobacco smoke varies by remoteness.

Young people outside major cities appeared to have their first cigarette at an earlier age (~15 years as opposed to ~16 years in Major cities.

Secondary school students in Inner regional (~23%) and remote (~28%) areas were more likely to have had at least a few puffs of a cigarette than those in major cities (~18%).

While 20% of young people in Major cities had smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime, 26%, 44% and 45% of young people in Inner regional, Outer regional and remote areas had done so.

People outside Major cities were as likely or slightly more likely to have attempted to quit smoking, but were less likely to be successful (and more likely to be unsuccessful).

A higher proportion of secondary students outside Major cities were weekly or monthly smokers (6%, 5% and 7% in IR, OR and remote areas versus 5% in Major cities weekly, 9%, 7%, and 10% in IR, OR and remote areas versus 7% in Major cities monthly).

Table 3: Current daily smoker, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people 15+ years, by Remoteness, 2012-13

MC

IR

OR

R

VR

Crude Percent

Current daily smoker

36.2

40.9

39.8

47.4

51.1

Source: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4727.0.55.0012012-13?OpenDocument Table 2 (sighted 12/7/17)

Prevalence of smoking amongst Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people 15 years and older is around 35%-40% in Major cities and regional/rural areas, and close to 50% in remote areas. Note that while the pattern is similar in Table 2 and Table 3 above, the figures for 18+ and 15+ year olds are slightly different.

Smoking Trends

Table 4: Comparison of declines in smoking rate estimates across remoteness areas, people 18+, based on ABS NHS surveys, 2001 to 2011-12

Survey year

MC

IR

OR/Rem

Australia

Crude percent daily smokers

2001

21.9

21.9

26.5

22.4

2004-05

19.9

23.0

26.2

21.3

2007-08

17.5

20.1

26.1

18.9

2011-12

14.7

18.3

22.2

16.1

2014-15

13.0

16.7

20.9

14.5

Source: ABS National Health Surveys

From Table 4 above, rates of smoking have clearly declined in Major cities areas, but have been slower to decline in Inner regional and Outer regional/Remote areas. Rates of smoking in rural areas, apparently static last decade, now appear to be declining. Rates in Major cities and Inner regional areas have declined to 0.59 and 0.76 times the 2001 rates in these areas. The 2014-15 rate in Outer regional areas is 0.79 times the 2001 rate.

Figure 1: Daily smokers 18 years and older, 2007-08, 2011-12 and 2014-15, NHS

Figure 1: Daily smokers 18 years and older, 2007-08, 2011-12 and 2014-15, NHS

Source: ABS NHS http://www.aihw.gov.au/alcohol-and-other-drugs/data/ established tables, Table 3.3 (sighted 11/7/17)

Figure 2: Smokers 14 years and older, 2007, 2010 and 2013, NDSHS

Figure 2: Smokers 14 years and older, 2007, 2010 and 2013, NDSHS

Source: AIHW NDSHS http://www.aihw.gov.au/alcohol-and-other-drugs/data/ tobacco smoking table S3.12 (sighted 11/7/17)

Note: Smokers include daily, weekly and less frequent smokers.

Figures 1 and 2 above both show clear declines in Major cities and Inner regional areas, but the trend in Outer regional and Remote areas is less clear, with ABS data showing a decline in daily smoking rates for people aged 18+ between 2007-8 and 2014-15, but NDSHS data showing little change in smoking rates for people 14+ between 2007 and 2013.

Alcohol

Table 5: Alcohol risk status, by remoteness, 2013 and 2014-15

Alcohol consumption

MC

IR

OR/Rem

Exceeded 2009 NHMRC lifetime risk guidelines, people 18+, crude %, 2014-15 (a)

16.3

18.4

23.4

Exceeded 2009 NHMRC lifetime risk guidelines, people 15+, age standardised %, 2014-15 (b)

15.7

17.4

22.0

Exceeded 2009 NHMRC single occasion risk guidelines, people 18+, crude %, 2014-15 (a)

42.7

48.5

46

MC

IR

OR

R/VR

Abstainer/ex-drinker, crude %, 14+, 2013 (c)

23.1

18.9

20.5

17.5

Low lifetime risk, crude %, 14+, 2013 (c)

60.2

62

56.9

47.6

High lifetime risk, crude %, 14+, 2013 (c)

16.7

19.1

22.6

34.9

low single occasion risk, crude %, 14+, 2013 (c)

40.4

41.8

38.1

30.8

Single occasion risk less than weekly, crude %, 14+, 2013 (c)

23.5

24.4

23.6

22.8

Single occasion risk at least weekly, crude %, 14+, 2013 (c)

13

14.9

17.8

28.9

Sources:

Table 6: Alcohol consumption against 2009 NHMRC guidelines, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people 15+ years, by Remoteness 2012-13

MC

IR

OR

R

VR

Percent

Exceeded lifetime risk guidelines

18.0

18.7

18.2

22.5

14.3

Exceeded single occasion risk guidelines

56.7

57.4

50.7

59.0

41.4

Source: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4727.0.55.0012012-13?OpenDocument Table 2 (sighted 12/7/17)

The figures in Table 6 are not strictly comparable with those for the total population in Table 5, because  Table 6 refers to people who are 15 years and older, while Table 5 refers to people who are 18 years and older.

The percentage of the 15+ ATSI population exceeding 2009 NHMRC Lifetime risk guidelines is around 15-20% with little apparent inter-regional variation, compared with, for the total population 18+,  16% in Major cities, increasing to 23% in Outer regional/remote areas.

The percentage of the 15+ ATSI population exceeding the 2009 single occasion risk guidelines is around 50-60%, and around 40% in Very remote areas, compared with, for the total population 18+,  40-50% in Major cities, rural and regional areas.

Alcohol trends

Table 7: Type of alcohol use and treatment for alcohol, by remoteness area (per 1,000 population)

MC

IR

OR

R/VR

single occasion risk (monthly) 2004

287

304

321

370

2007

285

292

312

437

2010

274

312

329

413

2013

250

273

315

422

lifetime risk 2004

200

215

234

262

2007

199

210

238

314

2010

189

225

251

310

2013

167

191

226

349

very high risk – yearly 2004

167

185

206

243

2007

172

183

206

288

2010

161

183

218

266

2013

151

166

194

258

very high risk – monthly 2004

77

84

104

130

2007

78

89

100

153

2010

79

94

113

154

2013

70

70

100

170

very high risk – weekly 2004

21

27

41

38

2007

24

28

24

50

2010

37

43

54

78

2013

27

28

38

70

Closed treatment episodes 2004–05

61

72

60

58

2007–08

76

84

80

129

2010–11

69

96

87

135

2013–14

68

79

93

155

Source: NDSHS,  http://www.aihw.gov.au/alcohol-and-other-drugs/data/  alcohol -supplementary data tables, Table S18

Notes:
Single occasion risk (monthly): Had more than 4 standard drinks at least once a month
Lifetime risk: On average, had more than 2 standard drinks per day
Very high risk (yearly): Had more than 10 standard drinks at least once a year
Very high risk (monthly): Had more than 10 standard drinks at least once a month
Very high risk (weekly): Had more than 10 standard drinks at least once a week

There is a clear increase in the prevalence of people who drink alcohol in such a way as to increase their single occasion risk (eg from car accident, assault, fall, etc) and their lifetime risk (eg from chronic disease – liver disease, dementia, cancer etc) as remoteness increases.

In 2013, single occasion risk ranged from 25% of people 14 years or older in major cities to 42% of people in remote areas, while lifetime risk increased from 17% in major cities to 35% in remote areas.

In 2013, The prevalence of people who drank more than 10 standard drinks in one sitting at least once per week, increased from just under 3% in Major cities to 7% in remote areas.

In 2013-14, there were just under 70 closed treatment episodes per 1,000 people living in Major cities, increasing to around 80 and 90 per 1,000 population in Inner and Outer regional areas, to 155 per 1,000 people living in remote Australia.

 

Illicit drug use 2013

Table 8: Illicit drug use, “recent users” 14+, 2013

MC IR OR remote

Crude percent

Cannabis

9.8

10.0

12.0

13.6

Ecstasy

2.9

1.5

1.6

*1.8

Meth/amphetamine

2.1

1.6

2.0

*4.4

Cocaine

2.6

0.8

*1.1

*2.5

Any illicit drug

14.9

14.1

16.7

18.7

Source: AIHW National Drug Strategy Household Survey, 2013. http://www.aihw.gov.au/alcohol-and-other-drugs/data/  Illicit drug use (supplementary) tables S5.6, S5.11, S5.17, S5.21, S5.26.

Note: * indicates large standard error (therefore some degree of uncertainty)

Illicit drug use appears to be higher in Outer regional and remote areas compared with Major cities and Inner regional areas, in large part due to higher rates of cannabis use in these areas, but with apparent lower use of ecstasy and cocaine in regional areas compared with Major cities.

 

Physical activity

Table 9: Physical inactivity, people 18+, 2014-15

MC

IR

OR/Remote

Percentage of people aged 18+ who undertook no or low exercise in the previous week (crude) (a)

64.3

70.1

72.4

Percentage of people aged 18+ who undertook no or low exercise in the previous week (age standardised) (b)

64.8

68.6

71

Sources:
(a) ABS NHS (http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4364.0.55.0012014-15?OpenDocument Table 6.3)
(b) PHIDU (ABS NHS data) (http://phidu.torrens.edu.au/social-health-atlases/data#social-health-atlas-of-australia-remoteness-areas) sighted 18/7/2017

Note that level of exercise is based on exercise undertaken for fitness, sport or recreation in the last week.

Physical inactivity appears to be more prevalent with remoteness, increasing from 65% of people in Major cities to 71% in Outer regional/remote areas.

Table 10: Average daily steps, 2011-12

MC

IR

OR/Rem

Average daily steps, 18+ years, 2011-12 (a)

7,393

7,388

7,527

Average daily steps, 5-17years, 2011-12 (b)

9,097

9,266

9,160

Sources:

In 2011-12, adults living in Outer regional/Remote areas took slightly more steps than those living in Major cities or Inner regional areas, while the number of steps taken by children and adolescents in regional/Remote areas was slightly greater compared with those in Major cities.

Table 11: Average time spent on physical activity and sedentary behaviour by persons aged 18+, 2011-12

MC

IR

OR/Remote

Australia

Hours

Physical activity(a)

3.9

3.4

3.9

3.8

Sedentary behaviour (leisure only)(b)

29.3

28.0

27.9

28.9

Sedentary behaviour (leisure and work)(b)

40.2

35.2

36.0

38.8

Notes:
(a) Includes walking for transport/fitness, moderate and vigorous physical activity.
(b) Sedentary is defined as sitting or lying down for activities.

Source: ABS 2011-12 Australian Health Survey (Physical activity) http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4364.0.55.0042011-12?OpenDocument  Table 5.1

Adults living in Inner regional and Outer regional/Remote areas were about as likely as (or very slightly less likely than) those in Major cities to be sedentary in their leisure time, but appeared to be slightly less likely to be sedentary overall (ie their work involved a greater level of physical activity).

Table 12: Whether children aged 2-17 years met physical and screen-based activity recommendations, 2011-12

MC

IR

OR/Rem

Crude percentage

Met physical activity recommendation on all 7 days(a)(b)

27.5

34.3

34.2

Met screen-based activity recommendation on all 7 days(b)(c)

28.0

29.7

31.0

Met physical activity and screen-based recommendations on all 7 days (a)(b)(c)

9.7

10.9

14.2

Notes:
(a) The physical activity recommendation for children 2–4 years is 180 minutes or more per day, for children 5-17 years it is 60 minutes or more per day. See Physical activity recommendation in Glossary.
(b) In 7 days prior to interview.
(c) The screen-based recommendation for children 2–4 years is no more than 60 minutes per day, for children 5-17 years it is no more than 2 hours per day for entertainment purposes.

Source:
ABS 2011-12 Australian Health Survey (Physical activity) http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4364.0.55.0042011-12?OpenDocument  Table 14.3

Children in rural and regional Australia appeared more likely (34% vs 28%) to meet physical activity recommendations and slightly more likely (30%vs 28%) to meet screen-based activity recommendations than their Major cities counterparts.

 

Fruit and vegetable consumption

Table 13: Fruit and vegetable consumption, people 18+ years, by remoteness, 2014-15

MC

IR

OR/Remote

Crude Percentage

Inadequate fruit consumption(a)

50.0

50.6

51.2

Inadequate fruit consumption(b)

50.4

48.3

48.0

Inadequate vegetable consumption(a)

93.4

93.5

89.3

Inadequate vegetable consumption(b)

n.p.

n.p.

n.p.

Sources:
(a) ABS NHS (http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4364.0.55.0012014-15?OpenDocument Table 6.3)
(b) PHIDU (ABS NHS data) (http://phidu.torrens.edu.au/social-health-atlases/data#social-health-atlas-of-australia-remoteness-areas) sighted 18/7/2017

Note that adequacy of consumption is based on comparison with 2013 NHMRC guidelines.

Half of adult Australians eat insufficient fruit, with little clear difference between major cities and regional/rural areas.

Around 90% of adult Australians ate insufficient vegetables, with little clear difference between major cities and regional/rural areas.

Table 14: Fruit and vegetable consumption, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people 15+ years, 2012-13

MC

IR

OR

R

VR

Crude Percent

Inadequate daily fruit consumption (2013 NHMRC Guidelines)

59.0

60.6

56.9

54.9

49.1

Inadequate daily fruit consumption (2003 NHMRC Guidelines)

62.1

63.6

59.8

58.3

51.6

Inadequate daily vegetables consumption (2013 NHMRC Guidelines)

95.9

93.5

93.6

94.5

97.9

Inadequate daily vegetables consumption (2003 NHMRC Guidelines)

93.8

90.6

90.5

91.2

96.1

Source: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4727.0.55.0012012-13?OpenDocument Table 2 (sighted 12/7/17)

Roughly 60% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians 15+ in Major cities and regional/rural areas have inadequate fruit intake, closer to 50% in remote areas (compared with around 50% of all Australians 18+ in major cities and regional/rural areas).

Roughly 95% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians 15+ in Major cities and regional/rural areas have inadequate vegetable intake, perhaps higher (98%) in Very remote areas (compared with around 90%-94% of all Australians 18+ in major cities and regional/rural areas).

 

 

Overweight and Obesity

Table 15: Overweight and Obesity, people 18+ years, by remoteness, 2014-15

MC

IR

OR/Remote

Crude Percentage

Persons, overweight/obese (a)

61.1

69.2

69.2

Age standardised percentage

Males overweight (b)

43.8

41.1

34.3

Males obese (b)

25.8

33.1

38.2

Females overweight (b)

28.9

28.3

30.1

Females obese (b)

25.0

32.4

33.7

People  overweight (b)

36.2

34.4

31.4

People obese (b)

25.4

32.6

35.8

Sources:
(a) ABS NHS (http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4364.0.55.0012014-15?OpenDocument Table 6.3)
(b) ABS NHS http://phidu.torrens.edu.au/social-health-atlases/data#social-health-atlas-of-australia-remoteness-areas

Adults in rural/regional areas are more likely to be overweight or obese than people in Major cities (69% vs 61%).

However, there were inter-regional BMI and gender differences:

  • Compared with those in Major cities, males in Inner regional and especially Outer-regional areas were less likely to be overweight (41% and 34%, vs 44%) but much more likely to be obese (33% and 38% vs 26%).
  • Compared with those in Major cities, females in Inner regional and Outer-regional areas were about as likely to be overweight (~29%) but much more likely to be obese (~33% vs 25%).

 

Table 16: Overweight and Obesity, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people 15+ years, 2012-13

MC

IR

OR

R

VR

Crude Percent

Overweight

27.5

28.8

30.1

32.5

26.4

Obese

37.9

41.3

36.2

33.1

32.3

Overweight/obese

65.4

70.1

66.2

65.6

58.8

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in rural/regional and Remote areas (29%-33%) were a little more likely to be overweight than those in Major cities (28%), with those in Very Remote areas (26%) least likely to be overweight.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Inner regional areas (41%) were more likely to be obese than those in Major cities (38%), but those in Outer regional (36%) and remote areas (~33%) were less likely to be obese.

Overall, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Inner Regional areas were most likely to be overweight/obese (70%), those in Major cities, Outer Regional and Remote areas were less likely to be overweight/obese (~66%), while those in Very Remote areas were the least likely to be overweight/obese (59%).

These figures compare with 61% – the prevalence of overweight/obesity for (predominantly non-Indigenous) people living in Major cities.

 

High blood pressure

Table 17: High blood pressure, people 18+, by Remoteness, 2014-15

MC

IR

OR/Remote

Percentage

Crude % (a)

21.9

27.1

24

Age standardised % (b)

22.7

24.6

22.1

Sources:

(a) ABS NHS (http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4364.0.55.0012014-15?OpenDocument Table 6.3)
(b) ABS NHS http://phidu.torrens.edu.au/social-health-atlases/data#social-health-atlas-of-australia-remoteness-areas

Age for age, people in rural/regional Australia appeared to be as likely, or very slightly more likely to have high blood pressure than their counterparts in Major cities (~23% vs ~24%). However, because people in rural/regional areas are older (on average), the prevalence of people with high blood pressure is higher (~26% vs 22%) than

Updated 31/07/2017
To view archived Risk Factors click here

NACCHO Aboriginal Health and Smoking : Download Tackling Indigenous Smoking Program prelim. evaluation report

 ” The overall goal of the national Tackling Indigenous Smoking (TIS) program is to improve the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people through local population specific efforts to reduce harm from tobacco.

The purpose of this preliminary report is to provide a mid-term evaluation of progress to date in implementing the first year of the three year (2015-2018) TIS program.

The TIS programme with a budget of $116.8 million over 3 years ($35.3 million in 2015-16; $37.5 million in 2016-17 and $44 million in 2017-18) was announced by the Government, on 29 May 2015.”

Download 133 page PDF report Here :

NACCHO Download Dept Health Tackling Indigenous Smoking Evaluation June 2017

The report found the program is operating effectively, using proven approaches to change smoking behaviours, and delivering evidence-based local tobacco health promotion activities. I am pleased the report recommends it continues,

Smoking is the most preventable cause of disease and early death among Aboriginal people and accounts for almost one-quarter of the difference in average health outcomes between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians.

“The program provides grants in 37 urban, rural, regional and remote areas to assist local communities to develop localised anti-smoking campaigns

Minister Ken Wyatt

Read over 100 plus NACCHO articles published in past 5 years

This mid-term evaluation looks at progress to date of the TIS program, particularly in terms of regional grants delivering localised Indigenous tobacco interventions.

Source of intro

See list all 35 Recipients below

It does not look at long-term impact in relation to a reduction of smoking rates at a national level.

Findings focus on (see in full below 1-9)

  • the shift to TIS
  • community engagement and partnerships
  • localised health promotion
  • access to quit support
  • contribution to evidence base
  • National Best Practice Unit and TIS portal
  • governance and communications.

A number of key recommendations emerging from the evaluation are included in the report.(see Below Part 2)

Findings

1. Shift to TIS

Since the implementation of the TIS program, all grant recipients are primarily focused on planning for, and/or delivering, targeted and tailored activities that directly address reduction of smoking prevalence within communities.

For some grant recipients, broader health promotion activities without a clear link to tobacco reduction have dropped off significantly as a result of the shift to TIS, whilst for others the integration of healthy lifestyle and tobacco control strategies has been successful. There are varying degrees of clarity among grant recipients about the extent to which there is flexibility to tap into healthy lifestyle activities under the new guidelines.

2.Community engagement and partnerships

Community engagement and involvement in the design and planning of localised TIS programs is a key priority for grant recipients, and a key indicator of successful TIS activities.

While challenges were identified in terms of handling competing priorities in community, adhering to cultural protocols, and the change in focus of the TIS program and uncertainty about ongoing funding, in the main, grant recipients have demonstrated substantial progress in involving community in design and planning and garnering support for TIS activities.

This is evidenced by the popularity of community events hosted/attended by the TIS team and the proactivity of local community and Elders in advocating for tobacco control.

The success of the TIS program and the capacity for grant recipients to operate as a multi-level population health program in their region is highly dependent upon the quality and reach of partnerships between grant recipients and other agencies/organisations.

Whilst challenges to regional collaborations were reported, overall there has been a noticeable increase in the reporting of grant recipient collaboration and partnerships, representing an important shift to both a wider regional focus and wider community approach to tobacco reduction.

3.Localised health promotion

At the local level, a range of multi-component health promotion activities around tobacco control are being undertaken by grant recipients, in collaboration with external stakeholders. Local partnerships are crucial to the successful implementation of localised health promotion activities through facilitating access to priority populations, supporting capacity-building and enabling a broader population reach to achieve awareness and understanding of the health impacts of smoking and quitting pathways. viii

Increased levels of community support and ownership for local solutions to tackling Indigenous smoking are being seen across the TIS sites.

4.Community education

Community education, is being undertaken by all grant recipients. This manifests in a range of ways, including health promotion activities at community/sporting events, drama shows and comedy and social marketing.

The involvement of local champions and Elders in local education and awareness raising events and activities is recognised as central to tobacco control messages resonating with target audiences.

It has also been recognised that targeting priority groups, such as young people and pregnant women, requires the adaptation of messages so that they resonate with those groups.

Grant recipients are partnering with key local organisations (e.g. schools, other AMS etc.) to overcome some of the challenges around access to these priority groups.

Many grant recipients have established or showed progress in establishing social marketing campaigns to supplement other health promotion activities. Campaigns are developed largely through a strength-based approach, with ‘local faces and local places’ taking precedence. Grant recipients have acknowledged the challenges in measuring the impact of social marketing campaigns although some are demonstrating a commitment to collecting data on awareness, and influences on motivations and attempts to quit.

5.Smoke-free environments

An area that has been recognised by grant recipients as requiring attention is the promotion and establishment of smoke-free environments, particularly in rural and remote locations. Modelling smoke-free environments within the grant recipients’ own workplace is one way in which this issue is being addressed, with some evidence of success.

Challenges to the implementation of smoke-free workplaces include getting support from senior leaders or Board members who smoke, and organisations where tobacco control is not the main priority. Monitoring the compliance of smoke-free environments presented an additional challenge to grant recipients. Some external organisations have requested support to become smoke-free, and successful examples of smoke-free environments including smoke-free community events are evident.

Shifting attitudes around second-hand smoke (e.g. smoking indoors and in cars) and some evidence of behaviour change were reported by grant recipients and community members.

6.Access to quit support

TIS funded organisations are encouraged to take a systems approach to activity planning. The TIS program is part of a larger preventive health care system, all connected in different ways such as through referral pathways, and client appointments.

A key component of the TIS program is therefore enhancement of referral pathways and promoting access to quit support. Grant recipients have developed a range of opportunities for community members to achieve smoking cessation, with referral pathways having been established in two key areas: clinic-based referrals within their organisation and referrals made during localised TIS health promotion activities.

For some, successful referral pathways are dependent upon grant recipients partnering with external organisations.

Improving access to culturally appropriate support to quit has been a key focus of the grant recipients over the past 12 months.

Quitline enhancements are a component of the TIS program and data suggests that referrals to Quitline are higher in urban and some rural areas. Continuing to build strong partnerships between grant recipients and Quitline will be key to increasing referrals from local TIS programs into Quitline where appropriate.

Another key focus for grant recipients has been in increasing the skills of TIS workers and other professionals in contact with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to provide smoking cessation education and brief interventions. Quits kills training, and other smoking cessation education programs, have been accessed to support this goal.

7.Contributions to evidence base

The shift to delivering activities based in evidence and focusing more on outcomes than outputs has been welcomed by grant recipients, in the main, and has provided greater direction for activities and a goal to work towards.

A range of activities were undertaken by grant recipients to develop or strengthen their evidence base and work towards measurable outcomes. Collecting data remained challenging for some remote grant recipients operating in contexts with low literacy levels and where English is not the first language. Health service grant recipients wanting to collect population level data was also challenging when services are operating on different databases within a region and where there was an unwillingness to share data.

Overall, grant recipients expressed a willingness to focus on outcomes, and the confidence and capability to obtain data, although interpreting and reporting on data was presented as a challenge.

8.National Best Practice Unit and TIS portal

Advice and guidance around monitoring, measuring and further improving local TIS programs is provided to grant recipients through the NBPU TIS. Grant recipients have indicated that they value the support and advice provided through the NBPU TIS and this has aided in building their confidence and capacity to undertake monitoring and evaluation activities.

Some grant recipients reported that an additional level of support from NBPU TIS was needed. Resistance to change is common in any business when new processes are set in place. NBPU TIS therefore expected, and has witnessed, some resistance to this change. However, it continues to engage with grant recipients and support significant processes of change, not just reporting and compliance.

Another component of the work of the NBPU TIS is the development and ongoing maintenance and improvement of the Tackling Indigenous Smoking Resource and Information Centre (TISRIC) and its home, the TIS Portal (hosted by Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet).

Information and resources to support grant recipients in planning, monitoring, and evaluating activities, as well as information on workforce development is provided through the TIS Portal.

In addition, the Portal hosts an online forum (TIS Yarning Place) that enables grant recipients from across the country to share information and ask questions. Evaluation findings suggest that, whilst grant recipients are utilising the TIS Portal, some grant recipients have identified opportunities to enhance the useability of the TIS Portal.

9.Governance and communications

Various components of support are provided to grant recipients by the department and the NBPU TIS regarding the new focus and priorities and expectations of the TIS program.

To ensure consistent program messaging, and to enhance performance reporting, a range of initiatives were undertaken in the latter half of 2016 to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the various ‘players’ in the national TIS program.

The loss of experienced staff due to funding uncertainty has represented a significant challenge for several grant recipients in their planning and implementing activities.

Particularly in remote areas, recruitment has been an issue for many grant recipients due to the mix of skills demanded of TIS staff. Grant recipients report continued issues attracting and retaining staff with only short term contracts under the new TIS program.

Despite these concerns, indications are that providing grant recipients are given sufficient time and support to execute their Action Plans, they are on track for achieving stated tobacco reduction outcomes. The key risk to this is workforce stability, which would be mitigated by timely advice about the outcome of ongoing funding arrangements.

A number of key recommendations have emerged out of the evaluation findings:

Overall recommendations

1. Department: The TIS program in its current form should be continued, with a move away from short-term funding cycles.

2. Department: Provide immediate advice about the funding of TIS from June 2017 to end of current funding cycle.

Shift to TIS

3. Department: Provide clarity around what is allowable in relation to healthy lifestyle activities within the current iteration of the TIS program  Community engagement and partnerships

4. Grant recipients: Continue to broker partnerships and leverage relationships.

5. NBPU TIS: Continue to build capability of grant recipients to broker partnerships and leverage relationships through the distribution and promotion of relevant resources.

Community education and awareness

6. Grant recipients: Continue to identify and prioritise key groups, especially pregnant women.

7. Grant recipients: Ensure evidence-based best practice community education models (including monitoring and evaluation approaches) are sought and adopted where appropriate.

8. NBPU TIS: Ensure the evidence-based best practice community education models (including monitoring and evaluation approaches) are available, particularly for priority target groups such as pregnant women and activities around social marketing.

Smoke-free environments

9. Grant recipients: Continue to explore implementing smoke-free workplaces and enhance support for smoke-free public spaces.

10. National Coordinator: Lead a dialogue between regional leaders, including CEOs, Board members of TIS and non-TIS funded organisations around establishing smoke-free environments.

Access to quitting support

11. Grant recipients: Continue to strengthen partnerships with Quitline and other quit support structures where appropriate.  Contribution to larger evidence base

12. Grant recipients: Build on routine and existing data sources to reduce data collection burden.

National support

13. Grant recipients: Continue to seek feedback from NBPU TIS regarding M&E activities where required.

14. NBPU TIS: Continue to respond to feedback from GRs around M&E needs and TIS portal content and use ability.

15. Department: Articulate the role of the National coordinator  in the context that the program has evolved and as such his role has evolved. Governance and communication

16. Department: Provide greater clarification of TIS funding parameters, especially in terms of incorporation of healthy lifestyle activities and one-on-one smoking cessation support.

The Tackling Indigenous Smoking (TIS) regional tobacco control grants aim to improve the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people through population health activities to reduce tobacco use. It is an initiative of the Australian Government Department of Health (DoH).

At the end of 2015, a number of organisations were notified of their success in gaining a TIS grant for culturally appropriate tobacco cessation programs. The grants were awarded to a variety of service providers across the nation.

The 35 organisations that have commenced their programs are:

With the program funding provided until 2018, the successful organisations will work towards the intended outcomes of the TIS programme, including:

  • encouraging community involvement in and support for local tobacco control activities
  • increasing community understanding of the dangers of smoking and chewing tobacco
  • improving knowledge, skills and a better understanding of the health impacts of smoking.

Aboriginal #MensHealthWeek @HeartAust @CancerCouncilOz : Make sure you have a regular #ACCHO health check fellas !

 ” Heart disease was the leading cause of death for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, who experience and die from cardiovascular disease at much higher rates than other Australians.

When compared with other Australians, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were 1.3 times as likely to have cardiovascular disease, three times more likely to have a major coronary event, such as a heart attack and more than twice as likely to die in hospital from coronary heart disease.”

Aboriginal Chronic Care Officer with Northern NSW Local Health District, Anthony Franks speaking at the #MensHealthWeek Heart Foundation sponsored workshop in Grafton : Workshop photos Colin Cowell NACCHO media

Part 1 Heart Foundation Aboriginal Resources

We have a a variety of information sheets about heart conditions and risk factors for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

View and download the PDFs here, or call our Health Information Service on 1300 36 27 87 to order copies.

Part 2 For Cancer Council info see separate NACCHO Men’s Health promotion below

Let’s face it, your nuts don’t get a lot of love.

Give them a bit of a feel, it’s the polite thing to do. If something doesn’t feel right, go see an ACCHO  doctor. It’s an important step in detecting testicular cancer early

See info below or here

Pictured above Dave Ferguson from NACCHO Member Service  Bulgarr Ngaru AMS : Below some of the workshop participants with trainee doctors from Wollongong University experiencing Aboriginal health prevention

ABORIGINAL and Torres Strait Islander men are 19 times more likely to die from chronic rheumatic heart disease, so a series of workshops in Ballina and Grafton was held to raise awareness of the risk factors for heart disease among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men.

It’s all part of a program across Northern NSW for Men’s Health Week which will run from June 12-19.

The workshops provided a comfortable environment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men to learn and ask questions about ways to reduce their chances of experiencing heart disease.

All workshop participants had to complete a health questionnaire and have a blood pressure test

“The idea of these workshops is to raise awareness around the different signs and symptoms of heart disease, and also around prevention and management of the disease,” Mr Franks said,

“This is a new, collaborative approach to addressing this issue, working together with existing avenues such as healthy lifestyle and exercise programs to assist participants to make the most of what they’ll be learning.”

At the workshops men will learn about the importance of heart health checks, stress reduction, quitting smoking and healthy eating from community health practitioners, hospital cardiac nurses, and other health practitioners in a culturally safe environment.

Examples of Men’s Health Week International

 

See Link or read below

What is testicular cancer?

Testicular cancer is the second most common cancer in young men (aged 18 to 39).1

The most common type is seminoma, which usually occurs in men aged between 25 and 50 years. The other main type is non-seminoma, which is more common in younger men, usually in their 20s.

In 2013, 721 new cases of testicular cancer were diagnosed in Australia. For Australian men, the risk of being diagnosed with testicular cancer by age 85 is 1 in 218. The rate of men diagnosed with testicular cancer has grown by more than 50% over the past 30 years, however the reason for this is not known.

The five-year survival rate for men diagnosed with testicular cancer is close to 98%.

In 2014, there were 23 deaths from testicular cancer.


Testicular cancer symptoms

Testicular cancer may cause no symptoms. The most common symptom is a painless swelling or a lump in a testicle.

Less common symptoms include:

  • feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
  • swelling or lump in the testicle
  • change in the size or shape of the testicle
  • feeling of unevenness
  • pain or ache in the lower abdomen, the testicle or scrotum
  • back pain
  • enlargement or tenderness of the breast tissue (due to hormones created by cancer cells).

Causes of testicular cancer

Some factors that may increase a man’s risk of testicular cancer include:

  • undescended testicle (when an infant)
  • family history (having a father or brother who has had testicular cancer).

There is no known link between testicular cancer and injury to the testicles, sporting strains, hot baths or wearing tight clothes.


Diagnosis for testicular cancer

Tests used to diagnose testicular cancer include:

  • ultrasound (to confirm the presence of a mass) and
  • blood tests for the tumour markers alpha-fetoprotein, beta human chorionic gonadotrophin and lactate dehydrogenase.

However, the only way to definitely diagnose testicular cancer is by surgical removal of the affected testicle. While many other types of cancers are diagnosed by biopsy (removing a small piece of tissue from the tumour), cutting into a testicle could spread the cancer to other parts of the body. Hence the whole testicle needs to be removed if cancer is strongly suspected.


Treatment for testicular cancer

Staging

In addition to the results of the diagnostic tests above, a chest X-ray and CT scans of the chest, abdomen and pelvis are done to determine whether and how far the cancer has spread.

Stage 1 means the cancer is found only in the testicle, stage 2 means it has spread to the lymph nodes in the abdomen or pelvis, and stage 3 means the cancer has spread beyond the lymph nodes to other areas of the body such as the lungs and liver.

If the cancer is found only in the testicle (stage 1), removal of the testicle (orchidectomy) may be the only treatment needed. If the cancer has spread beyond the testicle, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy may be used as well.

Treatment team

Depending on your treatment, your treatment team may include a number of the following professionals:

  • GP who looks after your general health and coordinates specialist treatment
  • urologist who specialises in the treatment of diseases of the urinary system and male reproductive system
  • medical oncologist who prescribes chemotherapy treatment
  • radiation oncologist who prescribes radiation therapy
  • cancer nurses
  • endocrinologist who specialises in diagnoses and treatment of disorders of the endocrine system. For men who have had both testicles removed, this will include testosterone replacement
  • other health professionals such as dietitians, social workers and physiotherapists.

Palliative care

In some cases of testicular cancer, your medical team may talk to you about palliative care. Palliative care aims to improve your quality of life by alleviating symptoms of cancer.

As well as slowing the spread of testicular cancer, palliative treatment can relieve pain and help manage other symptoms. Treatment may include radiotherapy, chemotherapy or other drug therapies.


Screening for testicular cancer

There is no routine screening test for testicular cancer. While it is important to get to know the regular look and feel of your testicles and let your doctor know if you notice anything unusual, there is little evidence to suggest that testicular self-examination detects cancer earlier or improves outcomes.

 


Prognosis for testicular cancer

Prognosis means the expected outcome of a disease. An individual’s prognosis depends on the type and stage of cancer as well as their age and general health at the time of diagnosis. You may wish to discuss your prognosis and treatment options with your doctor, but it is not possible for any doctor to predict the exact course of your disease.

All testicular cancers can be treated and most testicular cancers are successfully treated.


Preventing testicular cancer

There are no proven measures to prevent testicular cancer.


Source

Understanding Testicular Cancer, Cancer Council Australia © 2016. Last medical review of source booklet: September 2016.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2017. Cancer in Australia 2017. Cancer series no. 101. Cat. no. CAN 100. Canberra: AIHW.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. ACIM (Australian Cancer Incidence and Mortality) Books. Canberra: AIHW.

1) Excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, which is the most commonly diagnosed cancer according to general practice and hospitals data, however there is no reporting of cases to cancer registries.

 

Aboriginal Women’s Health #Breastcancer and @BCNAPinkLady : Sharing experiences and encourage you to connect, seek support and information.

” The theme of this year’s Breast Cancer Network Australia (BCNA) Summit was Making A Difference, and played host to many firsts, including the first-ever Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Think Tank focusing on the experiences of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians with breast cancer.

The Think Tank was facilitated by BCNA board member Professor Jacinta Elston, and brought together 48 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women from around Australia to share issues around treatment and survivorship of breast cancer in their communities.

The key outcome of the Think Tank was the development of a three year Action Plan that outlines BCNA’s key future work, in partnership with national peak Aboriginal health organisations.

VIEW BCNA Interview VIDEO of the women above HERE

More than 200 delegates gathered on the Sunshine Coast to help people in their community with breast cancer at BCNA’s 2017 National Summit

Breast Cancer Network Australia 2017 Summit at Novotel Twin Waters Resort, Sunshine Coast. photography by Lou O’Brien

More broadly, people across Australia were invited to participate in a range of workshops and lectures at Summit.

In various streams, delegates learnt new skills for helping others and managing emotions that come along with supporting other people with cancer.

As a result of activities at Summit, BCNA will be able to implement key strategic projects and services that will better support a wide range of communities and demographics.

Consultations helped informed BCNA about issues affecting Australians affected by breast cancer, but most importantly, looked at what solutions could be implemented at a local level.

These learnings will feed into BCNA’s State of The Nation project, to be launched in 2018. A dinner also took place to thank delegates for their participation, and gave attendees the opportunity to meet some of BCNA’s corporate partners, and exchange stories of their breast cancer experience.

BCNA would like to say a big thank you to our members, health professionals and corporate partners who attended this year’s National Summit.

We would like to extend our gratitude to those that gave up their own time to share experiences and learn from each other about how together we can improve the lives of all Australians affected by breast cancer. –

Resources

Early detection can boost your chances of surviving breast cancer. Many women have no signs or symptoms. However, some women do and there are things you can look out for.

Being ‘breast aware’ means becoming familiar with the normal look and feel of your breasts and reporting any unusual breast changes to your doctor as soon as possible.

Breast Health and Awareness info HERE

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

This is a private group for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples affected by breast cancer.

Closed Group Chat

NACCHO Aboriginal Health #WorldNoTobaccoDay : Cape York mob are saying “Don’t Make Smokes Your Story.”


“Wasting a lot of money to buy cigarettes and it was making me sick, coughing a lot, and getting up late, and it smells on your clothes a lot. So I said to myself I would have to cut down smoking.”

“You don’t have to buy cigarettes, you don’t have to afford cigarettes for other people, you don’t have to get cigarettes. Just be strong and stand up for yourself and say no!”

Selena Possum, who has lived in Pormpuraaw for the last 20 years, is now a non-smoker. She says smoking affected her a lot

NACCHO Aboriginal Health #smoking #ACCHO events 31 May World #NoTobacco Day #QLD #VIC #WA #NT #NSW

May 31st is World No Tobacco Day and people from Cape York are saying “Don’t Make Smokes Your Story.”

Apunipima Cape York Health Council Tackling Indigenous Smoking (TIS) staff have been engaging with Cape York communities to develop an anti-smoking campaign.

The locally appropriate ‘Don’t Make Smokes Your Story’ campaign aims to raise awareness of the harms of smoking and passive smoking, the benefits of a smoke-free environment, and available quit support.

The Cape York ‘Don’t Make Smokes Your Story’ Campaign enables community members to share on film their stories about quitting, trying to quit and the impact of smoking on families and communities. It is hoped that by sharing their stories, others will be encouraged to share their stories too.

Coen local Amos James Hobson has never smoked in his life. He sees many young people start smoking “Just to be cool, to pick up a chick.” He says to all the young people out there, “Our people didn’t smoke, don’t smoke, it’s not good. It’s not our culture and it’s not our way.”

WATCH AMOS VIDEO STORY HERE HERE

Thala Wallace from Napranum has tried to quit three times and says “Every time it gets easier.” Her strategy is to “Try to find ways to occupy myself, snack-out on fruit or go to the gym, getting out and hanging out more with people who don’t smoke.”

Watch Thala story video here

The stories, as well as posters, social media posts and radio advertisements will be released from May 31st as Apunipima launches the Cape York ‘Don’t Make Smokes Your Story’ campaign.

The videos, including those featuring Amos, and Thala, will be distributed on the ‘What’s Your Story, Cape York?’ Facebook page and will be available on the Apunipima YouTube Channel here.

Apunipima received a Tackling Indigenous Smoking (TIS) Regional Tobacco Control Grant as part of the National Tackling Indigenous Smoking program.

To effectively reduce smoking rates in Cape York, Apunipima TIS staff have been engaging with communities to develop and implement a locally appropriate social marketing campaign to influence smoking behaviours and community readiness to address smoke-free environments. The Cape York campaign will align with a national ‘Don’t Make Smokes Your Story’ campaign.

NACCHO Aboriginal Health #Smoking #WNTD @AMAPresident awards #NT Dirty Ashtray Award for World #NoTobacco Day

“Research shows that smoking is likely to cause the death of two-thirds of current Australian smokers. This means that 1.8 million Australians now alive will die because they smoked.

The Northern Territory, a serial offender in failing to improve tobacco control, has been announced as the recipient of the AMA/ACOSH Dirty Ashtray Award for putting in the least effort to reduce smoking over the past 12 months.

But it seems that the Northern Territory Government still does not see reducing the death toll from smoking as a priority. Smoking is still permitted in pubs, clubs, dining areas, and – unbelievably – in schools.

The NT Government has not allocated funding for effective public education, and is still investing superannuation funds in tobacco companies.

“It is imperative that Governments avoid complacency, keep up with tobacco industry tactics, and continue to implement strong, evidence-based tobacco control measures.”

Ahead of World No Tobacco Day on 31 May, AMA President, Dr Michael Gannon, announced the results today at the AMA National Conference 2017 in Melbourne.

Previous NACCHO Press Release Good News :

NACCHO welcomes funding of $35.2 million for 36 #ACCHO Tackling Indigenous Smoking Programs

The Northern Territory, a serial offender in failing to improve tobacco control, has been announced as the recipient of the AMA/ACOSH Dirty Ashtray Award for putting in the least effort to reduce smoking over the past 12 months.

It is the second year in a row that the Northern Territory Government has earned the dubious title, and its 11th “win” since the Award was first given in 1994.

AMA President, Dr Michael Gannon, said that it is disappointing that so little progress has been made in the Northern Territory over the past year.

“More than 22 per cent of Northern Territorians smoke daily, according to the latest National Drug Strategy Household Survey, well above the national average of 13.3 per cent,” Dr Gannon said.

“Smoking will kill two-thirds of current smokers, meaning that 1.8 million Australian smokers now alive will be killed by their habit.

“But it seems that the Northern Territory Government still does not see reducing the death toll from smoking as a priority. Smoking is still permitted in pubs, clubs, dining areas, and – unbelievably – in schools.

“The Government has not allocated funding for effective public education, and is still investing superannuation funds in tobacco companies.”

Victoria and Tasmania were runners-up for the Award.

“While the Victorian Government divested from tobacco companies in 2014, and has made good progress in making its prisons smoke-free, its investment in public education campaigns has fallen to well below recommended levels, and it still allows price boards, vending machines, and promotions including multi-pack discounts and specials,” Dr Gannon said.

“It must end the smoking exemption at outdoor drinking areas and the smoking-designated areas in high roller rooms at the casino.

Learn more about the great work our Tackling Indigenous Smoking Teams are doing throughout Australia 100 + articles HERE

“Tasmania has ended the smoking exemption for licensed premises, gaming rooms and high roller rooms in casinos, but still allows smoking in outdoor drinking areas.

“While Tasmania has the second highest prevalence of smoking in Australia, the Tasmanian Government has not provided adequate funding to support tobacco control public education campaigns to the evidence-based level.  It should provide consistent funding to the level required to achieve reductions in smoking.”

Tasmania should also ban price boards, retailer incentives and vending machines, and divest the resources of the Retirement Benefits Fund (RBF) from tobacco companies, limit government’s interactions with the tobacco industry and ban all political donations, ACOSH said.

It should also ban all e-cigarette sale, use, promotion and marketing in the absence of any approvals by the Therapeutic Goods Administration.

Promotion

Download the app today & prepare to quit for World No Tobacco Day

Queensland has topped the AMA/ACOSH National Tobacco Control Scoreboard 2017 as the Government making the most progress on combating smoking over the past 12 months.

Queensland narrowly pipped New South Wales for the Achievement Award, with serial offender the Northern Territory winning the Dirty Ashtray Award for putting in the least effort.

Judges from the Australian Council on Smoking and Health (ACOSH) allocate points to each State and Territory in various categories, including legislation, to track how effective government has been at combating smoking in the previous 12 months.

“Disappointingly, no jurisdiction scored an A this year, suggesting that complacency has set in,” Dr Gannon said.

“Research shows that smoking is likely to cause the death of two-thirds of current Australian smokers. This means that 1.8 million Australians now alive will die because they smoked.

“It is imperative that Governments avoid complacency, keep up with tobacco industry tactics, and continue to implement strong, evidence-based tobacco control measures.”

The judges praised the Queensland Government for introducing smoke-free legislation in public areas, including public transport waiting areas, major sports and events facilities, and outdoor pedestrian malls, and for divesting from tobacco companies.

However, they called on all governments to run major media campaigns to tackle smoking, and to take further action to protect public health policy from tobacco industry interference.

31 May is World No Tobacco Day Tweet using “Protect health,reduce poverty, promote development”

Aboriginal Health #racism and #cancer #WCPH2017 : The inoperable, unstoppable @Proudblacksista Colleen Lavelle and other strong stories

“People will forget what you said, people will forget what you did,

but people will never forget how you made them feel. – Maya Angelou

These strong words are so true. I look at how my behaviour has changed with the brain tumour. I shudder when I think of the things I have said to my children.

I think it was about eight or nine years ago I was diagnosed with a brain tumour,

The reason I’m vague on it is I actually don’t think it’s a day to remember. It’s not a celebratory day.

Thinking about my four children motivates me to keep going

I’ll be buggered if I am going to have the [child safety] department or someone like that come in and take care of my kids.”

Cancer is a leading cause of death among Indigenous Australians, but fear, stigma and shame mean it is rarely spoken about.

Ms Colleen Lavelle’s a Wakka Wakka woman, from Queenslandknown as @Proudbacksista  tumour has been deemed inoperable, which means it’s considered terminal.

Hear or Download hear her Radio National Interview 

Or

Watch ABC TV report

Photo above from previous NACCHO News Alert

NACCHO Aboriginal Health : Death by #racism: Is bigotry in the health system harming Indigenous patients ?

NACCHO and Cancer over 60 articles

NACCHO Cultural Safety

Federal Government Website

Cancer in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia

Colleen lives in Brisbane and through her blog she has become a support person for other Aboriginal people facing cancer, helping them with practical matters and being a friendly voice on the other end of a phone line.

She also accompanies some patients to hospital appointments and would like to see it made easier for Aboriginal volunteers to do such work.

“If you come from the Torres Strait and you’ve come down here and someone’s speaking to you really fast, rattling off all these medical things you’ll kind of be going, ‘what?’,” she said.

“If you’ve got someone, one of your own mob there it makes it easier.”

 Recently Colleen wrote for Croakey /We Public Health

Close the Gap should be so much more than a photo opportunity or a morning tea. There are ways that everyone can help. I am going to share ten simple ones that I have been trying to get happening for years.

  1. More Indigenous hospital liaison officers – Whatever title you use, we need more people in the hospital working for us. Big hospitals often only employ two, that is not even close to being enough. They should be employed around the clock.
  2. Indigenous hospital volunteers – Hospitals need to have a separate army of volunteers, who deal exclusively with Indigenous patients, to spend time with the person from a remote area in a city hospital. To sit with someone having a long treatment. Just a friendly face in an alien environment.
  3. Cultural Awareness Training (CAT) – Should be compulsory with all hospital staff, from the cleaner to the director. This training should address the issues and problems in health, but also needs to be localised to have the Traditional Owners from the area to share their knowledge. To truly let people understand, I am not talking a one of two-hour session a year, but a long, fully-formed training, with refresher courses each year. All medical and Allied Health professionals should do, and be assessed on, Cultural Awareness on a regular basis, and this needs to be registered. It is not good enough when a health professional does one course on Indigenous People and 20 years later still think that was enough. General Practice also need to have CAT, even if they are not signed on to CTG, because they are going to be seeing Indigenous patients.
  4. General Practice incentive payments – GPs must lose their incentive payments if they sign on for the incentive and, during that time they don’t see an Indigenous patient. Again, they should lose the bonus if they are signed up and do not annotate the prescriptions for patients.
  5. Indigenous people have the right of choice – We should be able to see a private GP or the local Indigenous Medical Service, or both if we want, but some funding seems to steer us towards the Indigenous Medical Service. This can be hard if it’s a long way from your home and you have to depend on public transport.
  6. Employ more Indigenous people in the health sector, not just  doctors – It can be as simple as a receptionist, who makes a difference.
  7. Indigenous patients must be heard – Not just in the surgery but on national committees. Our experiences must be more than just fodder for researchers or funding applications.
  8. Buck-passing – PHNs, Division of General Practices and other organisations, must stop handing over Indigenous units to others. You have patients that see so many doctors, you have to be responsible. Handing units over to Indigenous Medical Services etc, is passing the buck. It takes away our free choice. It is a way of saying you are not interested in our wellbeing.
  9. Respect – Invite Elders to your hospital, clinic, whatever, on a regular basis, consider having an Elder in residence at your local hospital.
  10. Recognise and celebrate our important dates – It smacks of racism if a hospital is decked out in green and shamrocks everywhere for St Patrick’s day and come NAIDOC, there is a morning tea, hidden away, with only a few people involved. Share it. Don’t even get me started on Australia Day. (Okay, just a little bit) Understand that we don’t think it’s great to wave the flag or want to be in your premises when you have complete overkill of decorations and start talking about how wonderful it is.

The unspoken illness: Cancer in Aboriginal communities

Cancer is a leading cause of death among Indigenous Australians, but fear, stigma and shame mean it is rarely spoken about.

Aboriginal Australians are less likely to be diagnosed with cancer, but significantly more likely to die of the disease.

Often, symptoms and diagnoses are ignored because of the fear surrounding cancer.

Cancer in Aboriginal communities:

  • Indigenous Australians have a slightly lower rate of cancer diagnosis than non-Indigenous Australians
  • The Aboriginal cancer mortality rate is 30 per cent higher
  • Indigenous Australians are more likely to be diagnosed when cancer is advanced
  • They are less likely to participate in cancer screening programs
  • Lung cancer is the most common cancer among Indigenous Australians

Lateline spoke to some Aboriginal people about how they dealt being diagnosed and how they’re trying to break down taboos in their communities.

Rodney Graham: Bowel cancer

Rodney

Rodney Graham literally ran away from his diagnosis in 2015.

For seven months he didn’t go back to his doctor after he was told he had bowel cancer.

Eventually though, he mustered the courage to deal with the diagnosis and get treatment.

He had to travel 700 kilometres from his community of Woorabinda, in central Queensland, to Brisbane to be operated on.

“A big city like that, I don’t even like going to [Rockhampton] really. I can’t stand Rocky. But Brisbane that was a step up you know,” he said.

Now Mr Graham is happy to talk about his illness and wants to help others in his community face up to cancer.

“It might happen to someone else and they say, ‘Well we’ll go see Rodney, he knows all about it’,” he said.

“I’ll give them some advice and see how it goes from there.”

Mr Graham gave up drinking years ago and he said it probably saved his life.

“I think if I was still drinking I wouldn’t be here, you know what I mean,” he said.

Aunty Tina Rankin: Cervical cancer

Aunty Tina has survived cancer, but seen several close relatives succumb to the disease.

“One minute you’re sitting down there with that person, that person is so healthy, and then the next time you see them they’re that sick, they’re that small you can hardly recognise them,” she said.

“People think of it as the killer disease.

“They see people in cancer wards and to look at those people it puts them into a depressed state, and they go home thinking that they’re going to end up like that.”

Aunty Tina said people need to know there is help available for cancer sufferers.

She is part of the Woorabinda Women’s Group who are working to raise awareness in the community about cancer so sufferers don’t feel isolated.

“When you’re well and up and running, you’ve got that many friends,” she said.

“All of a sudden you get sick, you find out you’ve got cancer, you’ve got nobody, it feels as if you’re on your own.

“There were times when I just wanted to go and commit suicide through the depression.

“But I sit down and think about things, I pull myself out of that deep hole.”

Sevese Isaro: Lost his father to cancer

Sevese Isaro, or Tatay as he’s known locally, is Woorabinda’s radio host.

He knows first-hand how hard it can be to talk about cancer, having lost his father to the disease just a few years ago.

“Everyone just tried to stop talking about it,” he said.

“I fell back into drinking, everybody just went their own way.”

He said many people don’t go to the doctor when they suspect they could have cancer.

“They know that there’s something wrong with them, but they don’t want to go because they’re frightened of the answer,” he said.

“I guess people once they hear the word cancer they start getting frightened and they automatically give up hope.”

If you or anyone you know needs help contact your local ACCHO or call

NACCHO Aboriginal Health and #Smoking : @KenWyattMP announces $35.2 million funding #ACCHO Anti-smoking programs

These health services are all delivering frontline services to prevent young Indigenous people taking up smoking and to encourage existing smokers to quit.

Reducing smoking rates is central to the Government’s efforts to close the gap in life expectancy, but requires a consistent, long-term commitment”

Minister for Indigenous Health, Ken Wyatt

Over 100 NACCHO Articles about smoking

REDUCING INDIGENOUS SMOKING TO CLOSE THE GAP

The Australian Government will provide $35.2 million next financial year to continue anti-smoking programs targeted to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in regional and remote areas.

Minister for Indigenous Health, Ken Wyatt, said the Government had approved the continuation of funding to 36 Aboriginal Community ControlledHealth Services and one private health service.

“These health services are all delivering frontline services to prevent young Indigenous people taking up smoking and to encourage existing smokers to quit,”  .

“Reducing smoking rates is central to the Government’s efforts to close the gap in life expectancy, but requires a consistent, long-term commitment.

“Smoking causes the greatest burden of disease, disability, injury and earlydeath among Indigenous people and accounts for 23 per cent of the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.”

Under the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) National Healthcare Agreement, all governments have committed to halving the 2008 adult daily smoking rate among Indigenous Australians, of 44.8 per cent, by 2018.

“The rate of smoking among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people is still far higher than among other Australians and is damaging their health in many ways,” Minister Wyatt said.

It’s unlikely now that we will meet the COAG target, but we are making progress.

“It’s important that anti-smoking programs are meaningful for Indigenous people and changes made in recent years have ensured that only programs which are evidence based and effective are receiving grants.”

Continued funding for the 37 health services follows a preliminary evaluation of the Tackling Indigenous Smoking program which found that it was operating effectively and using proven approaches to changing smoking behaviour.

NACCHO Aboriginal Women’s Health #IWD17 : Five myths about the new cervical screening program that refuse to die

 ” With the burden of cervical cancer being much greater for Indigenous women (the incidence of cervical cancer is twice, and mortality four times, as high than non-Indigenous Australians), it’s important that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities stay informed of the new national cervical screening program.”

Terri Foran, Lecturer in the School of Women’s and Children’s Health, UNSW

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

For information on pap tests or the cervical screening program, contact Pap Test Register infoline on 13 15 56, talk to your GP or look up your nearest ACCHO

Picture above : The Free NACCHO App contains a geo locator, which will help you find the nearest Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation (302 Clinics ) in your area and

 Provides heath information online and telephone on a wide range of topics and where you can go to get more information or assistance should you need urgent help

Download details HERE

Women are confused about what changes to the cervical screening program will mean for their sexual health.

The online petition against changes to Australia’s cervical cancer screening program has revealed more than 70,000 people (most of whom we could assume are women) are deeply concerned about what the upcoming changes mean. The Conversation

Their comments also reveal a number of misconceptions about the new screening program, which will now be rolled out in December 2017, rather than in May as planned.

It seems that in concentrating on the science behind shifting away from Pap smears every two years to testing for the human papillomavirus (HPV) every five years, our medical authorities have failed to convince many Australian women this move will save lives.

Convincing women to come on board is, of course, critical to the success of the new screening program, which is forecast to improve cervical cancer detection rates by at least 15 per cent and is good news for women.

So let’s have a look at some common misconceptions and concerns about changes to the cervical cancer screening program raised by some of my patients and by the many people signing up to the change.org petition.

Myth #1: no more Pap tests means no more invasive examinations

Quite a few of my patients have thought the new screening program means the end of invasive examinations. And I say “unfortunately not”. For most women the collection procedure will be exactly the same as before. This means you will still have to lie on a couch and a doctor or nurse will still insert the dreaded speculum. This instrument is needed to hold the vaginal walls gently apart so that the cervix at the end of the vagina can be seen.

Two small brushes are used to sample cells from both the outside of the cervix and from the opening which leads up to the uterus. Rather than the specimen being smeared on a slide (as with Pap smears), the two brushes are swizzled around in a preservative liquid, which separates out most of the collected cells and any HPV, the virus responsible for at least 99.7% of cervical cancers.

But it’s not until the specimen gets to the pathology lab that the process really changes.

First, the specimen is checked for HPV and only if HPV is present will cells be examined for signs of pre-cancer or cancer.

There is also the option for women who have previously avoided having Pap tests for cultural, religious or personal reasons to collect their own HPV sample. It is estimated that even if a woman has only one self-collected test at age 30 she reduces her risk of cervical cancer by about 40%.

 

Myth #2: the new test could miss types of cervical cancer not related to HPV

Almost 85% of cervical cancers are actually skin cancers, triggered not by the sun but by HPV. This type of cervical cancer usually takes about 15-20 years to develop. So, HPV testing gives us a chance to detect potential problems long before there is anything to see on a Pap test.

In the new program, women who carry the highest risk HPV types will then have their cells examined using a more sensitive test known as liquid-based cytology. They will also be automatically referred to a gynaecologist for further tests. If other kinds of HPV are found, a check whether the cells show any changes will guide whether the woman is referred for other tests or simply monitored more closely.

 Pap Tests

Women who have previously avoided having Pap tests for cultural, religious or personal reasons can soon collect their own HPV sample.

Some 15% of cervical cancers start in glandular cells. HPV also triggers these cancers but they are often beyond the reach of the little brushes used to collect cells in a Pap test. They can hide away quietly, growing and spreading for many years before they are detected.

When you hear of someone diagnosed with cervical cancer after previously normal Pap tests it is almost always a glandular-type cancer.

The good news is that HPV testing should pick up this kind of cancer earlier and more reliably than a regular Pap test.

There are also some very rare cervical cancers (less than 1%) that start off from muscle, nerve or pigment cells deep within the cervix and are not related to HPV infection. It is true that the new screening program is not designed to detect these types of cancer but then they were also almost impossible to detect on a traditional Pap test as well.

 

Myth #3: young women will miss out on early detection if screening starts at 25

There are many online testimonies from women signing the change.org petition saying they had cervical cancer before the age of 25. It is more likely that most of these were pre-cancerous changes because cervical cancer in this age group is really rare – around 1.7 in 100,000 Australian women under 25.

Unfortunately, in the nearly 30 years our present screening program has been running there has been no significant impact on the numbers of cervical cancers reported in Australian women under 25.

Another complication in this younger age group is that cellular changes may look worse than they actually are because of a robust immune reaction to the HPV infection. Unfortunately this can lead to well-meaning advice to treat changes that are very likely to get better on their own.

 

Myth #4: less cervical testing reduces the chances of picking up other cancers such as ovarian and uterine cancer

Pap tests were designed to pick up pre-cancerous changes in the cells of the cervix. They are absolutely useless at detecting endometriosis, polyps, ovarian cancer or sexually transmitted infections other than HPV. They occasionally pick up uterine cancer if it is advanced enough for the cells to be shedding through the cervix that day.

The important point here is that screening tests are only for women with no symptoms. If a woman develops symptoms, such as irregular bleeding, pain or abnormal vaginal discharge, she needs to see her doctor for advice regardless of when she had her last cervical screening test.

 

Myth #5: the government is motivated by a cheaper option and will shift the costs of the test to the woman herself

The new tests are more expensive than a traditional Pap test, but because they are so much more sensitive there is no need to do them as frequently.

They will be funded under Medicare just as the Pap test is now. Any out-of-pocket costs depend on whether health care providers bulk bill (as they often do with screening tests) or charge the scheduled fee.

 

 

NACCHO Aboriginal #prevention Health : #ALPHealthSummit : With $3.3 billion budget savings on the table, Parliament urged to put #preventivehealth on national agenda

prevention-copy

 ” Recently the Federal Government has spoken in favour of investment in preventive health.

 In an address to the National Press Club in February this year, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull said, “in 2017, a new focus on preventive health will give people the right tools and information to live active and healthy lives”.

Health Minister Greg Hunt echoed that sentiment on 20 February announcing the Government was committed to tackling obesity.

Prevention 1st, however, argues the need for a more comprehensive, long-term approach to the problem. Press Release

mathew-cooke

NACCHO was represented at the #ALPHealthSummit by Chair Matthew Cooke pictured above with Stephen Jones MP

Leading health organisations are calling on the Commonwealth to address Australia’s significant under-investment in preventive health and set the national agenda to tackle chronic disease ahead of Labor’s National Health Policy Summit today.

Chronic disease is Australia’s greatest health challenge, yet many chronic diseases are preventable, with one third of cases traced to four modifiable risk factors: poor diet, tobacco use, physical inactivity and risky alcohol consumption.

Adopting preventive health measures would address significant areas flagged as critical by the both major parties, including ensuring universal access to world-class healthcare, preventing and managing chronic disease, reducing emergency department and elective surgery waiting times, and tackling health inequalities faced by Indigenous Australians.

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Prevention 1st – a campaign led by the Foundation for Alcohol Research and Education (FARE), the Public Health Association of Australia (PHAA), Consumers Health Forum of Australia (CHF Australia), and Alzheimer’s Australia – is urging the ALP to adopt the group’s Pre-Budget submission recommendations as part of the party’s key health policy framework.

FARE Chief Executive Michael Thorn says it is up to federal policymakers to address Australia’s healthcare shortfalls and that Labor has the perfect opportunity to reignite its strong track record and lead the way in fixing the country’s deteriorating investment in preventive healthcare.

“Australia’s investment in preventive health is declining, despite chronic disease being the leading cause of illness in Australia. Chronic disease costs Australian taxpayers $27 billion a year and accounts for more than a third of our national health budget. The ALP has both the opportunity and a responsibility as the alternate government to set the national agenda in the preventive healthcare space. Ultimately, however, it falls to the Government of the day to show leadership on this issue,” said Mr Thorn.

Its Pre-Budget submission 2017-18, Prevention 1st identifies a four-point action plan targeting key chronic disease risk factors.

Prevention 1st has called for Australia to phase out the promotion of unhealthy food and beverages, and for long overdue national public education campaigns to raise awareness of the risks associated with alcohol, tobacco, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition. Under the proposal, these measures would be supported by coordinated action across governments and increased expenditure on preventive health.

The costed plan also puts forward budget savings measures, recommending the use of corrective taxes to maximise the health and economic benefits to the community. Taxing products appropriate to their risk of harm will not only encourage healthier food and beverage choices but would generate much needed revenue – around $3.3 billion annually.

With return on investment studies showing that small investments in prevention are cost-effective in both the short and longer terms, and the opportunity to contribute to happier and healthier communities, Consumers Health Forum of Australia Chief Executive Officer Leanne Wells urged both the Australian Government and Opposition to take advantage of the opportunity to stem the tide of chronic disease.

“There is an obvious benefit in adopting forward-thinking on preventive healthcare to reduce pressure on the health budget and the impact of preventable illness and injury on society,” Ms Wells said.

The ALP National Health Policy Summit will be held at Parliament House in Canberra on Friday 3 March.


View the submission

View media release in PDF